Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Absolutism: unlimited power on an individual or group  Divine Right: idea that monarchs received their power directly from God and are only responsible.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Absolutism: unlimited power on an individual or group  Divine Right: idea that monarchs received their power directly from God and are only responsible."— Presentation transcript:

1  Absolutism: unlimited power on an individual or group  Divine Right: idea that monarchs received their power directly from God and are only responsible to Him

2  Charles V: Holy Roman Emperor  Divided Hapsburg lands between Ferdinand and Philip II  Philip II (r )  “Defender of the Catholic Faith” ▪ Inquisition: Autos Da Fe ▪ Marranos & Moriscos ▪ Dutch Independence  Prudent King (cautious and hard-working)  Unified the Government (capital city – Madrid)  Spanish Armada: ▪ Fleet of warships; sent to attack England ▪ 130 ships; 33,000 men

3  Cervantes – Don Quixote  Presents a new hero  Symbolized the decline of Spain  Inflation became a concern  Philip II’s successors lacked governing skills

4  Was Physically and mentally weak  No heirs to the throne  European monarchs plotted for control

5 The Tudor Dynasty

6  Henry VII (r )  Aristocracy became dependent on the crown  Used diplomacy to avoid war  Used marriages to strengthen royal power  Henry VIII (r )  Viewed as the most powerful Tudor monarch  Developed a strong Navy  Married six times  Worked with Parliament to accomplish his goals  Seized monastic lands and redistributed them  Edward VI (r )  Inherited the throne at 9 yrs. old – died at 15 yrs. old

7  Mary I (r )  Was devoutly Catholic; supported by the people  Married Philip II of Spain; restored Catholicism  Went to war with France – lost the port of Calais  Died in 1558 without an heir to the throne  Elizabeth I (r ):  Also known as the “Virgin Queen”  Speculation on who would succeed her  Respected by her subjects  Elizabethan Court & Government: advised by nobles  Social & Economic Policy: (monarch, gentry, yeomen) ▪ Statute of Apprentices (1563); Poor Laws (1595 & 1601)  Foreign Policy: Relied on the Channel for protection ▪ Mary Queen of Scots

8  Elizabeth did not leave an heir  1603: The English throne passed to James Stuart of Scotland (Mary Q. of Scots’ son)  King James VI (I):  United England and Scotland  Began the Stuart Dynasty

9  Henry IV (r ): Henry of Navarre  Edict of Nantes (1598): allowed Protestantism  Restored the crown’s treasury, repaired roads, etc.  Tried to restore discipline to the military  Laid the foundation of absolutism  Cardinal Richelieu:  Louis XIII gave power over to him  Destroyed castles to end noble control of France  Gave local authority to intendants, non-nobles  1625: Huguenots revolted against Louis XIII ▪ Lost at La Rochelle (1628) ▪ Lost rights to live in independent towns

10  Louis XIV (r )  Became king at age 5, began to rule alone at 23  Absolute Rule: ▪ Feared disorder if a strong monarchy did not exist ▪ Lived through the Fronde as a youth ▪ Supported by the church (Jacques Bossuet)  Court Life: ▪ Moved the government and courts to Versailles ▪ Kept a close eye on his nobles  Government Policies: ▪ Carefully chose advisors ▪ Separate authorities for separate duties ▪ Two key aides: Colbert and Tellier

11  Louis XIV (continued)  Taxation ▪ Tax burden was on the poor ▪ Little desire for higher output b/c of higher taxes  Religious Policy ▪ Persecuted Huguenots; many left France ▪ 1685: repealed the Edict of Nantes  Expansion and Conflict (War of Spanish Succession) ▪ England, Austria, and the Dutch allied together ▪ Treaty of Utrecht: France and Spain can’t unite  Legacy ▪ Brilliant cultural period ▪ Nobles lost ability to govern ▪ Peasants and middle-class resented the wealthy ▪ Nobles wanted to regain power under Louis XV

12  Charles V tried to revive the H.R.E. as the strong center of trade/politics in Europe  Unlike the Eastern Empires – individual states developed independently  Protestant Reformation allowed a political gathering and stronghold for German princes  Attacks from the French and Ottoman Empire proved to be to much on the defense

13  Thirty Years’ War: Religious conflict continued after the Peace of Ausburg  Ferdinand of Stryia was in favor of the Hapsburgs and caused the Czechs to revolt  Spain sent aid – Denmark, England, and Sweden joined together against the Hapsburgs  Approx. 1/3 of German population killed  Peace of Westphalia: recognized Calvinism as a religion  Austria: received land in Italy and the Netherlands  Pragmatic sanction: allowed female succession and stated that Hapsburg land could not be divided  Maria Teresa succeeded Charles VI in 1740 ▪ Strengthened the Austrian throne - improved bureaucracy

14  Prussia: enemy of Austria during the 1700s  Ruled by the Hohenzollerns  Fredrick William “the Great Elector”: ▪ Allied with the Junkers (nobles) = absolute power ▪ Only nobles could own land, exempt from taxes ▪ Fredrick I inherited the throne (weak ruler)  Fredrick William I: a powerful ruler ▪ United all functions into one beaucracy ▪ Devoted to the military (regiment of giants)  Fredrick II “Fredrick the Great”: ▪ Rejected the pragmatic sanction (seized Austrian land) ▪ 1748: the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle – recognized Prussia ▪ : Seven Years War: G.B. & France competed for land (ended with the Treaty of Paris)


Download ppt " Absolutism: unlimited power on an individual or group  Divine Right: idea that monarchs received their power directly from God and are only responsible."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google