As the son of Charles I, Charles II faced danger throughout the English Civil War and Cromwell’s rule. He risked death on the battlefield as he joined the royalist forces in their fight and in their defeat. He saw his father imprisoned and put to death. He narrowly escaped capture and execution by disguising himself as a servant and fleeing to the European continent.
In Europe, Charles wandered from country to country. While some European rulers received him as royalty, others threatened him with arrest as a fugitive. In his own country, the Puritans kept a close watch on Charles. Since he was the direct heir to the English throne, Charles posed a threat to their political power. By the time Parliament restored the monarchy, Charles had learned a good deal about pleasing people he needed for support and safety. Charles willingly accepted a change from the absolute power of his ancestors.
When Charles II returned to London (1660), the English people celebrated wildly. They felt freed from a violent, unstable period followed by harsh Puritan rule. This period, in which the House of Stuart was returned to the throne, is called the Restoration. Charles II became known as the Merry Monarch. He married a Portuguese Princess. They had no children. However, he fathered illegitimate children by his mistresses.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2Y0oaq1 sdM Stealing Crown Jewels! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2Y0oaq1 sdM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2kyNbZc 7oc King of Bling Song! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2kyNbZc 7oc
Charles was a member of the Church of England; secretly, however, he favored Catholicism. The king recognized that the settlement of England’s religious divisions rested to Parliament. Only members of the Church of England could attend universities, serve in Parliament, or hold religious services. This drove hundreds of Puritan clergy form their churches.
Restoration gave England a “Constitutional monarchy”, a form of government where the monarch’s powers are limited by a constitution. Although Charles II disagreed with some of the reforms, he never fought Parliament forcefully. Charles was determined to avoid his father’s fate. However, other monarchs, including the French ambassador to England were astonished at the mood of the English. In France, the king had absolute power.
The English celebrated the end of Puritan rule and faced two disasters In 1665, the plague returned to London for the last time, killing as many as 100,000 people. Later, a terrible raging fire destroyed much of London. Some people falsely blamed Catholics for the setting the fire as part of a plan to gain control of the country.
in 1679, Parliament tried to pass the Exclusion Bill, which would have kept James (Charles II’s Catholic brother) from becoming king since Charles II had no heirs. During the conflict, those members of Parliament who wanted to exclude James form the throne were known as the Whigs. Those who defended the hereditary monarchy were referred to as the Tories. In a compromise, the Tories agreed to defeat the Exclusion Bill by accepting another bill supported by the Whigs. The Whig-proposed a bill which established the principle of habeas corpus, as law.
According to habeas corpus, a person could not be held in prison by the king (or anyone else) without just cause or without trial. It was another step that increased individual rights and reduced those of the Crown.
When Charles II died in 1685, his Catholic brother, James II, became king, effectively ending the peaceful relations between Parliament and the Crown. James wanted absolute power and claimed he had the right to suspend any law. Ignoring Parliament’s religious laws, James appointed Catholics to government and university positions. He also allowed people of all Christian faiths to worship freely.
These actions alarmed the members of Parliament, but they tried to be patient. They were waiting for James to die and for the throne to be passed to his Protestant daughter, Mary, who was married to William of Orange, ruler of Netherlands. In 1688, however, a royal birth prompted Parliament to take action. James's second wife bore a son, who would be raised Catholic, and he would inherit the throne instead of Protestant Mary.
Both Whig and Tory leaders united against James and invited Mary’s husband William to invade England and take over the Crown. James fled to France when he realized he had little support in England. William III and Mary II gained the English throne without battles or bloodshed. This peaceful transfer of power was so welcome and so different from previous struggles that the English called it the Glorious Revolution. In 1689, William and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England “according to the statues in Parliament agreed upon, and the laws and customs of the same.”
In that same year, Parliament power by passed the Bill of Rights. According to the Bill of Rights, the king could not raise taxes or maintain an army without consent of Parliament and could not suspend laws. Further, it declared that Parliament should be held often and that there should be freedom of debate in sessions of Parliament.
The Bill of Rights also guaranteed certain individual rights such as: 1. trial by jury, 2. outlawed cruel and unusual punishment for crime, 3. limited the amount of bail money required. 4. Citizens were given the right to appeal to the monarch and to speak freely in Parliament. In 1689, the exiled James II landed in Ireland and led Irish Catholics in a revolt to recapture the Crown. The uprising failed. Anti- Catholic feelings grew and led to the Act of Settlement (1701), Parliament excluded any Catholic from inheriting the English throne …
1. Mary’s Sister: Anne in 1702 2. Then England and Scotland signed an Act of Union in 1707, uniting the two kingdoms into the newly named nation :Great Britain. 3. Scots gave up their parliament but could keep their own Calvinist religion, own laws, courts and educational system 4. during Anne’s reign she sought guidance from a CABINET, which was a small group of political advisors.
1. the English throne then went to a King George I. George I was raised as part of the German ruling Hanover family (he was a son to the granddaughter of James 1 st named Sophie, who had married a German ruler of Hanover, Germany) George was a Protestant as the Act of Settlement had required but he had one small problem running England…he spoke little English!
George I relied on the cabinet even more than Anne had. Eventually, Sir Robert Walpole, the leader of the Whigs, gained control of the cabinet. Although he spoke no German, Walpole advised the king. Walpole’s position as head of the cabinet was later called prime minister, the chief executive of a parliamentary government. He remained prime minister as a new king, son of George I, George II, took the throne in 1727.
With the king’s encouragement, Walpole gradually took over many political responsibilities; managing finances, appointing government officials, and requesting the passage of laws. He helped avoid wars and allowed the North American colonies to grow without interference from the British government.
In 1760, George III, grandson of George II, became king at age 22. He greatly expanded the British Empire through victory in a war against France. Great Britain gained Canada and all of France’s territory east of the Mississippi River. The cost of waging the war –and the ways in which George III and his ministers tried to deal with the cost-eventually lead to rebellion in Great Britain's’ American colonies.
House of Tudor Henry VII Tudor (1485- 1509) Henry VIII (1509-47) Edward VI (1547-53) Lady Jane Grey (1553) Mary I Tudor (1553-58) Elizabeth I (1558-1603) MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN House of Stuart James I (1603-25) Charles I (1625-49) The Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell (1649-58) Richard Cromwell (1658-59) House of Stuart, Restored Charles II (1660-85) James II (1685-88) House of Orange and Stuart William III, Mary II (1689- 1702) House of Stuart Anne (1702-14)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhy_ApS2 DvM Wife swap: Puritan Roundheads vs Merry family of restoration http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhy_ApS2 DvM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXvvbmp z5i0 Glorious Revolution. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXvvbmp z5i0