Presentation on theme: "As the Roman Empire continued to grow in size, it became increasingly more difficult to control. In 284 AD Emperor Diocletian (284-305) came to the throne."— Presentation transcript:
As the Roman Empire continued to grow in size, it became increasingly more difficult to control. In 284 AD Emperor Diocletian (284-305) came to the throne after a century of disorganization, internal dissent, economic collapse, and foreign invasions. It wasn’t long after he took control that in 285 AD he decided that the Empire was too large to be administered by a single ruler, so he divided it into two halves. The Empires would be ruled by Co- Emperors and the western half would be centered in Rome, while the eastern half would be ruled from the city of Byzantium. The Byzantine Empire-The Eastern half of the Roman Empire
The dividing line was chosen because most territories to the west of the line spoke Latin and followed traditional Roman culture, while the territories to the east spoke Greek and maintained less traditional Roman ways.
The location of Byzantium on the water between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea made it a powerful trading force in the east.
When the western area was overrun by German tribes, the Empire was officially divided in 395 AD and as a result, power shifted to the east and the Byzantine side remained strong for a few hundred years more. The empire benefited from the high level of civilization in the former Hellenistic world and from the region’s prosperous trade. In the 4 th c. Emperor Constantine renamed the city of Byzantium to Constantinople Constantinople –Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople- “The Second Rome” Key trading route linking Europe, Africa and Asia –Buffer between Western Europe and Asia Constantinople –Capital of the Byzantine Empire · Constantinople
In 527, the Byzantine emperor Justinian aimed at regaining control of Italy and restoring the old Roman Empire once again. Through war and conquest by about 550 AD, Justinian once again ruled over almost all of the territory of the old Roman Empire. The Age of Justinian 527-565
The Empress Theodora Theodora was the wife of Justinian I who was crowned Emperor of the Byzantine Empire in 527 AD. As his wife, she ruled by his side, as his partner, and her intelligence helped to advance the Empire. They ruled unofficially as joint monarchs with Justinian allowing Theodora to share his throne and take active part in decision making.
Perhaps the most significant event during Empress Theodora's rule was the Nika revolt in which she proved herself a worthy and able leader. During this event, two rival political groups started a riot at the Hippodrome. They set many public buildings on fire and proclaimed a new emperor. Justinian and his officials, unable to control the crowd prepared to flee, but Theodora spoke up and gave a moving speech about the greater significance of the life of someone who died as a ruler, over that of someone who lived but was nothing. Her determined speech convinced Justinian and his officials and they attacked the Hippodrome, killing over 30,000 rebels and emerging victorious. Historians agree that it was Theodora's courage and determination that saved Justinian's empire The Empress Theodora
Throughout the rest of her life, Theodora and Justinian transformed the city of Constantinople, building it into a city that for many centuries was known as one of the most wonderful cities in the world. They built aqueducts, bridges, and more than 25 churches, the most significant of these being the Hagia Sophia - 'Church of Holy Wisdom'. To women, Theodora may well be considered a noble pioneer of the women's liberation movement. She passed on laws prohibiting forced prostitution and established homes for prostitutes, passed rights that granted women more rights in divorce cases, instituted the death penalty for rape and established laws allowing women to own and inherit property. The Empress Theodora
Hagia SophiaHagia Sophia – Great domed church constructed during the reign of Justinian Justinian’s CodeJustinian’s Code – Justinian’s codification of Roman law; made Roman law a the basis for political and economic life Justinian’s Achievements The Hippodrome- stadium used for horse and chariot racingThe Hippodrome- stadium used for horse and chariot racing
Orthodox Christianity in the East Although it was based on the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire had developed a culture of its own. There were many differences between the west and the east. The feeling of separateness from Rome grew worse when one Byzantine emperor banned the use of icons. Icons are religious images, statues and symbols used in worship. The pope (in the west) supported the use of icons and even ordered the excommunication of the Byzantine emperor. That means that the pope said the emperor could no longer be a member of the Church.
Slowly, the Eastern and Roman churches grew apart. In 1054, the schism, or split became permanent. In the east religion was called Orthodox Christianity or Byzantine Christianity. Orthodox Christianity in the East
The final break between the two churches occurred in 1054. Even the architecture of their churches are different. Orthodox Churches Roman Catholic Churches
Preserved classic works of ancient Greece & Western Rome (learning) including Christianity Created Orthodox Christian religion Justinian’s code of laws Importance of the Byzantine Empire
Trade between the Byzantine Empire and the city of Kiev helped spread Byzantine culture into Asia. Vladimir I – ruler of Kiev (980-1015) converted kingdom to orthodox Christianity Russians started to adapt religious art, music and architecture Byzantine culture spreads to Russia Russia Kiev –trade city that became the center for a kingdom that flourished until the 12th c.
Located between China and Europe. 3 regions helped shape early Russian life –North (very cold winters) -Lumber and hunting –South-Fertile land for farming –Steppe-treeless grassland Open to nomads from Asia and Europe Russia’s Geography
Great “Highway” Rivers linked Byzantine to Russia Steppe Areas
As Kiev grew in wealth and power it became a target of a Nomadic people from central Asia, the Mongols. (United by Genghis Khan) They Looted and burned Kiev Russian princes had to pay tribute (money) to rule without Mongol interference Mongol rule of Russia lasted 200 years and cut off Russian contacts with Western Europe which were making advances in art and science Mongol Influences
With the destruction of Kiev, the city of Moscow began its rise in Russia Under the rule of Ivan the III (the Great), Russia defeated the Mongols (circa 1480) Moscow Replaces Kiev
Recovered Russian territories that were lost to invaders Took on the title of Czar (Russian for Caesar) Ivan the Great ---- Ivan III
Russian Orthodox – Russian form of Christianity brought from the Byzantine Empire Cyrillic alphabet
Grandson of the Great Violent, killed own son Introduced Russia to extreme absolute power Ivan the Terrible --- Ivan IV
The long decline began in 11 th c. Muslim Turkish invaders seized almost all of the empire’s Asian territory, removing the most important sources of taxes and food In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople Muslims eventually took Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. This marked the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The Byzantine End