Presentation on theme: "Restoration Literature Lecture One: Introduction."— Presentation transcript:
Restoration Literature Lecture One: Introduction
Time of Enormous Change two revolutions, a religious revolt great strides in learning.
Great Writers Flourish Milton Pope Dryden Swift Behn
Where Does the Term “Restoration” Come from? In 1649, King Charles I was executed by the Parliament From England was ruled by the Lord High Protector, Oliver Cromwell and Parliament. This period is called the Interregnum
The Restoration For a number of reasons England wanted no more of protectorates Asked Charles II, the executed king’s son, to come back to England and rule.
First Stuart King James VI and I, King of Scotland and England. Came to the throne 1603 when his cousin, Elizabeth I, the last Tudor monarch, died Died 1625
Martyred King Charles I married Henrietta Marie de Bourbon, daughter of the King of France Executed January 30, 1649
Restored King Charles II only 19 when his father is executed restored to the throne May 1660 died 1685
Exiled King James II, brother of Charles II Married first, Lady Anne Hyde Married second, Princess Maria de Modena Abdicated 1688 Died in Paris, 1701
England’s Only Co-regnants Mary II and William III Mary is the daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. William is the son of King Charles II and King James’s sister Mary and her husband Willem II, prince of Orange-Nassau Mary died 1694 William died 1702
The Last Stuart Monarch Anne, younger daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. Died childless in 1714 Passed the throne on to her cousins in the House of Orange from Hanover.
Simplified Reasons for Civil War The economic interests of the urban middle class coincided with religious (Puritan) ideology and this conflicted with The traditional (agrarian) economic interests of the Crown and the allied Anglican Church.
Confused by Christianity? If you are not up on the variations of Christianity, I firmly suggest you look at Fu Jen English Dept’s World Religion pages Fu Jen English Dept’s World Religion pages
Who are the Puritans? A generalization, as there are wide variances in this group. Included the Presbyterians, Independents, Congregationalists, Baptists, Quakers. Most of these religions are some form of Calvinism. Not only did the Puritans wish to “purify” themselves, they also strove to "purify" both the English church and society of the remnants of "corrupt" and "unscriptural" "papist" ritual and dogma.
What are Papists? Derogatory term! Papist refers to those who follow the Pope, in other words, Roman Catholics. For the Puritans, Roman Catholics were worse than unbelievers. Puritans believed that Roman Catholics were actually following the Anti-Christ in the shape of the Pope, and at heart, they were nothing more than idol worshippers.
What does this mean for individuals? In a broad sense, Puritanism represented strict obedience to the dictates of conscience and strong emphasis on the virtue of self-denial.
Puritanism and Art It’s not that they didn’t like art, though they were traditionally anti-theater (which for them represented lying and immorality). But art should glorify God. One of England’s greatest poets, Milton, was a staunch Puritan.
Puritanism and Wealth Puritanism encouraged an essentially practical attitude to worldly affairs. success at business was a visible sign of God’s blessing and approval. You might want to look at some of Max Weber’s writings on Puritanism and the rise of capitalism, if you like this stuff
Where Does that Leave Art? Art encourages contemplative virtues, which the practical Puritan was inclined to view as unnecessary, therefor frivolous, therefor “sinful”.
The “Inner Light” Puritans believed that the “good life” could only be lived by the “inner light” - the voice of God in the heart - and to “hear” this voice it was necessary to conduct the most scrupulous self-inquiry.
Spiritual Auto-biography From this came a form of literature known as the “spiritual autobiography,” which became very popular during this period. John Bunyan’s Grace Abounding To The Chief Of Sinners is one of the most famous examples. (can be found in the Norton)
Two Consequences: Increased interest in, and understanding of, the human heart in others as well as in the self (see Pilgrim’s Progress) Encouraged the sense of loneliness of the individual - a sense supported by the growing economic individualism of the late 17 th century
Puritan Values in England Puritanism’s influence in England peaked during Cromwell’s rule, but it many of its principals had become firmly entrenched in the middle class during this period. As a result, English and Scottish culture are heavily influenced by the Puritan ethic.
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads Cavaliers - nickname for the Royalist side “Cavalier poetry” by Lovelace and Suckling among others Cavaliers are seen as brave, graceful and witty Roundheads - nickname of the Puritans Seen as dull, boring and religious Remember, they ultimately “lost” the battle, so our view is colored.
The Royalists Loose King Charles I executed Contemporary engraving of the execution of Charles I. He is already being seen as a martyr.
Psychological Impact Killing an anointed king shocked and appalled much of the English population. Just last year yet another film was made about the execution. Rupert Everett as Charles I in To Kill a King. Cromwell was played by Tim Roth.
Oliver Cromwell ( ) Given the title “Lord High Protector” Former general in charge of Parliament’s New Model Army
England under Cromwell Closed the theaters. Closed many of the inns. Many sports were banned. Swearing was fined, though if you kept up at it, you could end up in jail.
Sundays are Holy Days Sunday, as the Lord’s Day, became a special day. If boys were found playing ball on a Sunday, they could be whipped. Any kind of unnecessary work could result in a fine. If women did unnecessary work on a Sunday, they could end up in the stocks. Taking a walk for pleasure, unless you were headed to church, could end you up with a fine.
No More “Papist” Feast Days Instead of the frequent saints’ feast days that people celebrated, Cromwell instituted a once-a-month fast day when people couldn’t eat at all.
Changes to Christmas Many Christmas practices are rooted in paganism, so Christmas celebrations were banned. Cromwell wanted people to remember that it was the birth of Christ that they should be celebrating, not fun, games and frivolity. Having a Christmas feast won you punishment, and soldiers were sent out to snatch the cooking goose if they found one. Traditional decorations like holly and ivy were banned.
Modesty in Dress Women and girls should dress modestly as it says in the Bible. Their hair should be covered, and make-up was forbidden. If a soldier saw a woman out with make-up, he would forcibly scrub it off of her face. Colorful clothes were also banned, so most women wore black, grey or dark blue dresses that were very simple. They would have white aprons and headcovers.
Modesty for Men, Too Men adopted severe, dark dress plain, short hair styles
Macauley Quote: "It was a sin to hang garlands on a Maypole, to drink a friend's health, to fly a hawk, hunt a stag, to play at chess, to wear lovelocks, to put starch into a ruff, to touch the virginals [a predecessor of the piano], to read the Fairy Queen.--Rules such as these, rules which would have appeared insupportable to the free and joyous spirit of Luther, and coutemptible to the serene and philosophical intellect of Zwingle, threw over all life a more than monastic gloom. The learning and eloquence by which the great reformers had been eminently distinguished, and to which they had been, in no small measure, indebted for their success, were regarded by the new school of Protestants with suspicion, if not with aversion. Some [teachers] had scruples about teaching the Latin grammar because the names of Mars, Bacchus, and Apollo occurred in it. The fine arts were all but proscribed. The solemn peal of the organ was superstitious. The light music of Ben Jonson's masques was dissolute. Half the fine paintings in England were idolatrous, and the other half indecent."
Richard Cromwell, the Heir “Richard was an unlikely successor, coming to prominence only because his two elder brothers both died before their father. Having previously sat in parliament, but only having joined the Council of State a year before his appointment as Protector, he had neither the political experience nor the interest required to maintain his position. He gave it up with little hesitation, resigning or "abdicating" after a demand by the Parliament. This was the beginning of a short period of restoration of the Commonwealth of England, but led to a state of anarchy that resulted in the return of the exiled King Charles II and the restoration. Unlike his father, Richard was not held accountable for the death of King Charles I. He retired to obscurity, going into exile on the Continent under the soubriquet of "John Clarke", but returning in 1680 to live out the remainder of his life in Britain.”
The King Restored When Richard abdicated, people longed for the stability of the monarchy. Charles was recalled Not without political machinations
Act of Indemnity and Oblivion Charles granted an amnesty to Cromwell’s supporters Not covered under this act were the judges and officials involved in his father’s trial and execution.
The Regicides “At that time 41 of the 59 signers of the king’s death warrant were still alive. Fifteen of them fled: William Goffe, John Dixwell, and Edward Whalley went to New England; several went to Germany and Holland; and Edmund Ludlow and four others went to Switzerland. Some were able to convince Charles II that they had had little to do with his father’s trial and that they were loyal to the monarchy, and they were reprieved. Nine of those who signed the warrant and four others closely connected with the trial were hanged. Six others, who were deemed less politically dangerous, were imprisoned for life; some were later reprieved.”
Restoration In May of 1660, Charles II finally came back to England. He arrived in London to great cheering and joy on his 30 th birthday.
Repealing Cromwell’s Laws One of the first things Charles did when he returned was to repeal all of Cromwell’s laws. Inns reopened, theaters reopened, sports started up again, and life in England became “merry” again.
Political Pamphlets There was a thriving pamphlet culture. Pamphlets were anonymous political tracts put out about all kinds of political questions. The pamphlets had to be anonymous because of the strict censorship laws Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Delariver Manley wrote pamphlets
Charles II ( ) He is probably best known as a ladies’ man
Lucy Walter Lucy Walter, mother of James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth. Lucy died in 1658, before Charles’s triumphant return to England By then, Lucy and Charles had split and she lived a squalid, loose life. Shortly before she died, Charles actually had his 9-year- old son, James, kidnapped from her and brought to his mother in France. Though this sounds cruel, Lucy soon died of venereal disease, a terrible death, so it was probably for the best.
Many Mistresses During his reign Charles had twelve other “important” mistresses Seven bore him children. He had fourteen acknowledged children.
No Legitimate Children Charles married Catherine of Braganza, the Infanta of Portugal, in 1662 never had children, though by all accounts, the king and queen were happily married. Queen Catherine
Why James as Heir is a Problem? James was a Roman Catholic. There was still great dear and suspicion against Catholics in England, and the people did not want a Catholic king.
James as King James II came to the throne on a wave of popular sentiment after his brother’s death in 1685 in three short years he was deposed by his own Protestant daughter and son-in-law. James II
Religious Problems Whether or not one chose the right religion meant the difference between spending eternity in Heaven or Hell. If the government did not support the proper religion, in their eyes it could mean the difference between a nation having God’s blessing or not.
Charles’s Balancing Act Charles almost always successfully balanced the official Church of England Protestantism with the more radical brand of Puritan Protestantism on one side and Roman Catholicism on the other.
The Yorks as Catholics James’s Protestant wife, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, converted to Catholicism towards the end of her life. She died in 1671, and shortly after, James converted to Catholicism. By Charles’s royal decree, the princesses Mary and Anne were brought up Anglican.
Further York troubles In 1673 James married the Italian princess Maria of Modena, who was also Catholic. They had four children before James became king. All died before he took the throne.
Prince James Francis Edward Stuart As long as James and Maria had no son, Princess Mary, by James’s first marriage, was still second in line for the throne. June 1688 James Francis Edward Stuart born. James’s reign was already troubled, and the thought that a Catholic prince was next in line for the throne was intolerable to Parliament and most of the English population as well.
Abdication or Coup? December 1688: William of Orange arrived in England with a large force James fled for France, in fear of his life. Remember, James had been a young man of 16 when his father was executed. Like his brother, he spent most of his early life facing danger and possible death. Parliament saw this as an abdication, and named William and Mary joint rulers.
The Pretenders James never accepted defeat, and claimed the throne for the rest of his life, as did his son,“The Old Pretender” and his grandson,the “The Young Pretender,” or Bonnie Prince Charlie as he’s often called in literature.
Final Uprising Many Scottish people never accepted the House of Orange, and were persecuted because of it until a final revolt in 1745, which the English finally crushed for once and for all.
William and Mary The new co-regnants
Bloodless Revolution Technically the second civil war in England. Although it’s called bloodless, James continued to attempt to regain the throne until the decisive Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, July Blood was spilt, but very little for such a large overthrow of a king.