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Augustus Adopted by great uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC

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1 Augustus Gaius Octavius Thurinus Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus 27 BC-14 AD

2 Augustus Adopted by great uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC
Part of 2nd triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus 1st Emperor of Rome at age 36 after he defeated Mark Antony at Battle of Actium off the coast of Egypt Died of illness at age 77 near Naples His two adopted grandsons had both predeceased him. Passed throne to adopted step-son Tiberius, who was with him on his deathbed. His last words were, “Did you like the performance?” To ensure stability, succession to a position he held “unofficially” would be earned by merit…not by birth.

3 Reforms of Augustus beginning of Pax Romana
Laid foundations for stable govt. --- restored the outward façade of the Republic while exercising sole authority over the Senate Created efficient civil service to enforce laws Opened high-level jobs to men of talent Gave provinces a measure of self-govt. Ordered a census Set up a postal service Issued new coins Gave the unemployed jobs building roads, temples, baths, theatres, etc. Created a police and fire-fighting force Instituted the Praetorian Guard: “secret service” force for emperors

4 Fun Stuff! “He had clear, bright eyes ... His teeth were wide apart, small, and ill-kept; his hair was slightly curly and inclining to golden; his eyebrows met. He was short of stature.” His sister Octavia married Mark Antony, who cheated with Cleopatra of Egypt & gave her 3 children. “Two Caesars are one too many!” He had Ptolemy Caesarion, son of Julius. Caesar and Cleopatra, strangled at the age of 17. “I found Rome a city of bricks; I leave it a city of marble.” Hired Agrippa to build the original Pantheon, which was burned down in a fire in 80 AD He was cremated inside a coffin and declared a god by the Senate. Month of Sextilis was renamed August in his honor.

5 Tiberius Tiberius Claudius Nero 14-37

6 Tiberius Adopted son (stepson) of Octavian
Emperor at age 56 – refused the title “Augustus” Died at age 78: either old age or possibly smothered to death Throne passed to nephew Caligula (and grandson Tiberius Gemellus) Exiled himself to Capri; left administration in the hands of former friend Aelius Sejanus, who was behind the execution of Tiberius’ son Drusus

7 FUN STUFF! Known as dark, reclusive, paranoid and depressed
Delivered his father’s eulogy at age 9 Enjoyed swimming in the baths at Capri with other men “To the Tiber with Tiberius” was shouted among the people, who were glad of his death at the port town of Misenum.

8 Caligula Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus 37-41

9 Caligula Emperor at age 25
Adopted his cousin Tiberius Gemellus (co-emperor) & had him killed Died at age 28: assassinated/stabbed by several of his own guards; his 4th wife and daughter were also murdered. Throne passed to his uncle Claudius, who was found hiding in the palace behind a curtain Was probably insane – extremely unqualified to be an emperor – He demanded to be worshipped as a god. He may have suffered from epilepsy & seizures. Appointed Claudius as co-consul, but tormented him in private

10 FUN STUFF! Name means “little boots,” a name given to him by his father’s soldiers. He accompanied his father on military expeditions & wore child-sized military boots in camp. Ordered a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships; rode his horse from one port to another wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great He was excessively cruel, had incestuous relationships with his sisters, nominated his horse for senator, and wandered the hall of his palace demanding the sun to rise He gave his horse Incitatus, jewelled necklaces, a marble stable with furniture and a staff of servants. People suspected of disloyalty were executed or driven to commit suicide.

11 Claudius Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus 41-54

12 Claudius Emperor at age 51 – 1st born outside Italy…born in Gaul
Seen by many as mentally handicapped; made emperor by senators who thought he could be easily manipulated. Died at age 64: murdered by poisonous mushrooms (possible plot by wife Agrippina, sister of Caligula) Throne passed to nephew and adopted son Nero (Agrippina’s natural son) Involved in many public works; judged many legal disputes; helped expand the empire

13 FUN STUFF! He had many physical ailments; he stuttered, drooled, his nose ran, and he was weak in the knees; symptoms became worse under stress "He had a great passion for women, but had no interest in men.” Seutonius (He married 4 times) He issued numerous edicts such as promoting public flatulence for good health. His mother called him a monster; his grandmother refused to be seen with him

14 Nero Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus 54-68

15 Nero Emperor at age 17 Died at age 31: suicide by stabbing (assisted by his scribe) “What an artist the world loses in me!” Throne passed to the “4 emperors” --- Galba, Otho, the glutton Vitellius (one of Tiberius’ male prostitutes in Capri) and VESPASIAN Often blamed for the Great Fire of Rome (July 64) --- he turned blame to the Christians as scapegoats; they were thrown to the lions and crucified in large numbers

16 Tacitus on NERO --- “And perishing they were additionally made into sports: they were killed by dogs by having the hides of beasts attached to them, or they were nailed to crosses or set aflame, and, when the daylight passed away, they were used as nighttime lamps. Nero gave his own gardens for this spectacle .

17 FUN STUFF! As Nero grew angry at Agripinna’s unofficial rule through him, he plotted to poison her, drown her, rig the ceiling to fall on her bed; eventually an assassin was hired to club her to death. Nobody was permitted to leave his singing or acting performances; with the penalty of death!

18 Vespasian Titus Flavius Vespasianus 69-79

19 Vespasian Emperor at age 60
Died at 70 from an illness; on his deathbed stated, “I think I must be turning into a God” & “An emperor ought to die standing.” Throne passed to son Titus He left the war in Judea (began in 66) to come back to Rome as appointed emperor Noted for his mild behavior and sense of justice He spent money on public works, a new forum, public baths and the Colosseum

20 Titus Titus Flavius Vespasianus 79-81

21 Titus Emperor at age 40 Died at age 42: Fever; illness; suspected assassination by his brother Throne passed to his brother Domitian Well-loved by the population Stopped treason trials, held expensive gladiator games, completed the Colosseum, built baths; spent money to help restore Rome after another fire & to help victims of the Pompeii/Herculaneum

22 Domitian Titus Flavius Domitianus 81-96

23 Domitian Emperor at age 30
Died at age 45: Assassinated by enemies in the Senate – stabbed 8 times Throne passed to Nerva Disastrous administrator; economy came to a halt, taxes raised, etc. Persecuted Jews and Christians: end of reign Ineffective military commander Well-educated man with a love for the arts: invested large sums of money in embellishing Rome

24 FUN STUFF! Great passion for games: Implemented the Capitoline Games (similar to the Olympics); enjoyed fights between women and dwarves Loved oratory, music and acting competitions A notorious womanizer; wife often joined him in his “escapades.” Would vomit up his meals using a long feather Published a book on baldness; he was sensitive about his own Superstitious – believed he would die around noon

25 Nerva Marcus Cocceius Nerva 96-98

26 Nerva Emperor at age 66 Died at age 68: suffered a stroke; died 3 weeks later Throne passed to Trajan: adopted him First of the “5 Good Emperors” Released prisoners accused of treason; restored confiscated property; involved the Senate in his rule He was taken hostage by the Praetorian Guard and forced to hand over those responsible for Domitian’s assassination

27 Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus 98-117

28 Trajan Emperor at age 45 Died at age 64: of edema and general illness
Throne passed to Hadrian, who had first brought him word of his adoption by Nerva – Hadrian was also a surrogate son to Trajan 2nd of the “Five Good Emperors” – 1st non-Italian Given the title “Optimus”– the best Known best as a soldier; empire expanded to its greatest extent during his reign

29 FUN STUFF! Had a weakness for young boys and wine
Directed the building of the last aqueduct in Rome Gave provisions to the poor and to children Enjoyed the outdoors

30 Hadrian Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus 117-138

31 Hadrian Emperor at age 41 Died at age 62: illness at his villa on the Bay of Naples Throne passed to Antoninus Pious BUT only after his first poor choice L. Ceionius Commodus died Was the third of the “Five Good Emperors” Named emperor immediately before the death of Trajan

32 Hadrian Continued Excellent military administrator; but reign marked by lack of conflicts Built massive wall along northern border of Britain Directed building of the Pantheon in Rome Spent much of his reign traveling Known as the “Great Restorer”

33 FUN STUFF! First emperor to be sculpted with a beard
Destroyed “pleasure villages” or brothels during his reign Banned co-ed bathing in Roman bathhouses

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