Presentation on theme: "Augustus Adopted by great uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC"— Presentation transcript:
1 Augustus Gaius Octavius Thurinus Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus 27 BC-14 AD
2 Augustus Adopted by great uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC Part of 2nd triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus1st Emperor of Rome at age 36 after he defeated Mark Antony at Battle of Actium off the coast of EgyptDied of illness at age 77 near NaplesHis two adopted grandsons had both predeceased him.Passed throne to adopted step-son Tiberius, who was with him on his deathbed. His last words were, “Did you like the performance?”To ensure stability, succession to a position he held “unofficially” would be earned by merit…not by birth.
3 Reforms of Augustus beginning of Pax Romana Laid foundations for stable govt. --- restored the outward façade of the Republic while exercising sole authority over the SenateCreated efficient civil service to enforce lawsOpened high-level jobs to men of talentGave provinces a measure of self-govt.Ordered a censusSet up a postal serviceIssued new coinsGave the unemployed jobs building roads, temples, baths, theatres, etc.Created a police and fire-fighting forceInstituted the Praetorian Guard: “secret service” force for emperors
4 Fun Stuff!“He had clear, bright eyes ... His teeth were wide apart, small, and ill-kept; his hair was slightly curly and inclining to golden; his eyebrows met. He was short of stature.”His sister Octavia married Mark Antony, who cheated with Cleopatra of Egypt & gave her 3 children.“Two Caesars are one too many!”He had Ptolemy Caesarion, son of Julius. Caesar and Cleopatra, strangled at the age of 17.“I found Rome a city of bricks; I leave it a city of marble.”Hired Agrippa to build the original Pantheon, which was burned down in a fire in 80 ADHe was cremated inside a coffin and declared a god by the Senate.Month of Sextilis was renamed August in his honor.
6 Tiberius Adopted son (stepson) of Octavian Emperor at age 56 – refused the title “Augustus”Died at age 78: either old age or possibly smothered to deathThrone passed to nephew Caligula (and grandson Tiberius Gemellus)Exiled himself to Capri; left administration in the hands of former friend Aelius Sejanus, who was behind the execution of Tiberius’ son Drusus
7 FUN STUFF! Known as dark, reclusive, paranoid and depressed Delivered his father’s eulogy at age 9Enjoyed swimming in the baths at Capri with other men“To the Tiber with Tiberius” was shouted among the people, who were glad of his death at the port town of Misenum.
9 Caligula Emperor at age 25 Adopted his cousin Tiberius Gemellus (co-emperor) & had him killedDied at age 28: assassinated/stabbed by several of his own guards; his 4th wife and daughter were also murdered.Throne passed to his uncle Claudius, who was found hiding in the palace behind a curtainWas probably insane – extremely unqualified to be an emperor – He demanded to be worshipped as a god.He may have suffered from epilepsy & seizures.Appointed Claudius as co-consul, but tormented him in private
10 FUN STUFF!Name means “little boots,” a name given to him by his father’s soldiers. He accompanied his father on military expeditions & wore child-sized military boots in camp.Ordered a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships; rode his horse from one port to another wearing the breastplate of Alexander the GreatHe was excessively cruel, had incestuous relationships with his sisters, nominated his horse for senator, and wandered the hall of his palace demanding the sun to riseHe gave his horse Incitatus, jewelled necklaces, a marble stable with furniture and a staff of servants.People suspected of disloyalty were executed or driven to commit suicide.
11 Claudius Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus 41-54
12 Claudius Emperor at age 51 – 1st born outside Italy…born in Gaul Seen by many as mentally handicapped; made emperor by senators who thought he could be easily manipulated.Died at age 64: murdered by poisonous mushrooms (possible plot by wife Agrippina, sister of Caligula)Throne passed to nephew and adopted son Nero (Agrippina’s natural son)Involved in many public works; judged many legal disputes; helped expand the empire
13 FUN STUFF!He had many physical ailments; he stuttered, drooled, his nose ran, and he was weak in the knees; symptoms became worse under stress"He had a great passion for women, but had no interest in men.” Seutonius (He married 4 times)He issued numerous edicts such as promoting public flatulence for good health.His mother called him a monster; his grandmother refused to be seen with him
15 NeroEmperor at age 17Died at age 31: suicide by stabbing (assisted by his scribe) “What an artist the world loses in me!”Throne passed to the “4 emperors” --- Galba, Otho, the glutton Vitellius (one of Tiberius’ male prostitutes in Capri) and VESPASIANOften blamed for the Great Fire of Rome (July 64) --- he turned blame to the Christians as scapegoats; they were thrown to the lions and crucified in large numbers
16 Tacitus on NERO --- “And perishing they were additionally made into sports: they were killed by dogs by having the hides of beasts attached to them, or they were nailed to crosses or set aflame, and, when the daylight passed away, they were used as nighttime lamps. Nero gave his own gardens for this spectacle .
17 FUN STUFF!As Nero grew angry at Agripinna’s unofficial rule through him, he plotted to poison her, drown her, rig the ceiling to fall on her bed; eventually an assassin was hired to club her to death.Nobody was permitted to leave his singing or acting performances; with the penalty of death!
19 Vespasian Emperor at age 60 Died at 70 from an illness; on his deathbed stated, “I think I must be turning into a God” & “An emperor ought to die standing.”Throne passed to son TitusHe left the war in Judea (began in 66) to come back to Rome as appointed emperorNoted for his mild behavior and sense of justiceHe spent money on public works, a new forum, public baths and the Colosseum
21 TitusEmperor at age 40Died at age 42: Fever; illness; suspected assassination by his brotherThrone passed to his brother DomitianWell-loved by the populationStopped treason trials, held expensive gladiator games, completed the Colosseum, built baths; spent money to help restore Rome after another fire & to help victims of the Pompeii/Herculaneum
23 Domitian Emperor at age 30 Died at age 45: Assassinated by enemies in the Senate – stabbed 8 timesThrone passed to NervaDisastrous administrator; economy came to a halt, taxes raised, etc.Persecuted Jews and Christians: end of reignIneffective military commanderWell-educated man with a love for the arts: invested large sums of money in embellishing Rome
24 FUN STUFF!Great passion for games: Implemented the Capitoline Games (similar to the Olympics); enjoyed fights between women and dwarvesLoved oratory, music and acting competitionsA notorious womanizer; wife often joined him in his “escapades.”Would vomit up his meals using a long featherPublished a book on baldness; he was sensitive about his ownSuperstitious – believed he would die around noon
26 NervaEmperor at age 66Died at age 68: suffered a stroke; died 3 weeks laterThrone passed to Trajan: adopted himFirst of the “5 Good Emperors”Released prisoners accused of treason; restored confiscated property; involved the Senate in his ruleHe was taken hostage by the Praetorian Guard and forced to hand over those responsible for Domitian’s assassination
28 Trajan Emperor at age 45 Died at age 64: of edema and general illness Throne passed to Hadrian, who had first brought him word of his adoption by Nerva – Hadrian was also a surrogate son to Trajan2nd of the “Five Good Emperors” – 1st non-ItalianGiven the title “Optimus”– the bestKnown best as a soldier; empire expanded to its greatest extent during his reign
29 FUN STUFF! Had a weakness for young boys and wine Directed the building of the last aqueduct in RomeGave provisions to the poor and to childrenEnjoyed the outdoors
30 Hadrian Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus 117-138
31 HadrianEmperor at age 41Died at age 62: illness at his villa on the Bay of NaplesThrone passed to Antoninus Pious BUT only after his first poor choice L. Ceionius Commodus diedWas the third of the “Five Good Emperors”Named emperor immediately before the death of Trajan
32 Hadrian ContinuedExcellent military administrator; but reign marked by lack of conflictsBuilt massive wall along northern border of BritainDirected building of the Pantheon in RomeSpent much of his reign travelingKnown as the “Great Restorer”
33 FUN STUFF! First emperor to be sculpted with a beard Destroyed “pleasure villages” or brothels during his reignBanned co-ed bathing in Roman bathhouses