Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Section 3. Section Focus Question How did conflicts in Europe spur explorations in North America? Conflicts in North America Religious Conflicts."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 Section 3
Section Focus Question How did conflicts in Europe spur explorations in North America? Conflicts in North America Religious Conflicts Economic Conflicts As the appeal of the Reformation increased, the split between the Catholics and the Protestants increased religious and economic tensions between countries in Europe.
Religious Conflicts By 1530s, the rulers of Sweden, Denmark, and several European states had split with the Roman Catholic Church and set up Protestant churches in their countries. In other areas of Europe, the teachings and writings of a Swiss thinker, John Calvin, had a great influence on the development of Protestant churches in France, Switzerland, Scotland, and the Netherlands.
King Henry VIII Henry married Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Catherine did not produce a son or male heir to the English throne. Henry sought a divorce and wanted to remarry. Catholic law does not permit divorce, so Henry asked the pope to annul (cancel) his marriage. The pope refused and caused Henry to break with the Catholic Church. Henry set up a Protestant Church and named it the Church of England.
Economic Conflicts Religious tensions inflamed rivalries that already existed among the nations of Europe. Wars were common and alliances often shifted. This uncertainty made European rulers believe they could not depend on one another to protect their country’s security.
Spain Spain was not willing to depend on Italian and Portuguese traders. As a result, the Spanish monarchs supported Columbus’s search for a new route to Asia. The Spanish thought that if they could start colonies there, goods from those colonies would make Spain wealthy and powerful. Most importantly, Spain hoped Asian colonies would provide them with gold.
Mercantilism Nearly every European nation sought gold to pay for its wars and help strengthen its armies. Spain required one fifth of all gold that Spaniards found be sent to the king. This requirement was part of a system widely followed at this time, called mercantilism. Mercantilism is a system where the colonies existed to make the home country wealthy and powerful.
The Spanish Armada King Henry VIII of England died in The throne was ruled by his son Edward who died shortly after. Mary I took the throne and she planned to restore the Roman Catholic Church in England. Mary died in 1558 and Elizabeth I, a Protestant, took the throne. The rule of the Protestant Queen renewed the rivalry with the Roman Catholic Spain.
Spain’s Defeat Spain’s ruler, King Phillip II hoped to make England a Catholic nation again. In 1588, Phillip assembled a fleet of 130 warships known as the Spanish Armada. Phillip hoped to force Elizabeth from the throne. England’s smaller and faster ships sank many of the Spanish ships. The Spanish Armada returned to Spain with barely half of their ships.
Changing the Balance of Power in Europe The defeat of the Spanish Armada changed the balance of power in Europe. Spain was weakened and so was its control of the seas. This enabled countries like England and France to found colonies in the Americas. Europe’s religious and economic conflicts were not settled by the defeat of the Armada. As England France founded colonies, these conflicts spread to the Americas.
John Cabot Columbus’ returned from his first voyage interested another Italian explorer, John Cabot. Cabot decided that a more northern route to Asia would be shorter and easier. Spain and Portugal had no interest in Cabot’s ideas but England did. England financed Cabot’s voyage.
Cabot’s Voyage Cabot left England in May 1497 with one ship. He crossed the North Atlantic and explored the region around Newfoundland. On a second voyage in 1498, Cabot may have explored the North American coast as far south as Chesapeake Bay. We cannot be sure because his ships disappeared without a trace.
Northwest Passage Europeans soon realized that the lands Cabot had reached were not Asia, but a land that they had never seen. England, France, and Holland all financed voyages of exploration to North America. These voyages focused on finding a northwest passage, or a sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific that passed through or around North America.
Giovanni da Verrazano In 1524, another Italian explorer, Giavanni da Verrazano searched for such a passage for King Francis I of France. Verrazano explored the Atlantic coastal region from North Carolina to Newfoundland. In doing this, he discovered the mouth of the Hudson River and New York Bay.
Jaques Cartier French explorer, Jacques Cartier, made three trips to North America for France. In searching for the Northwest Passage, he discovered the St. Lawrence River and explored it as far as present-day Montreal.
Henry Hudson English explorer Henry Hudson made four voyages in search of a Northwest Passage. Two voyages in the Arctic Ocean, during 1607 and 1608, were unsuccessful. Hudson’s English backers gave up on him but the Dutch grew interested in his activities and financed a third expedition in Crossing the Atlantic, Hudson reached what is now New York and explored up the river that today bears his name.
Hudson Bay Hudson’s discoveries convinced the English to sponsor a fourth voyage in Hudson sailed into the Arctic again looking for the passage to the Pacific. He reached as far a Hudson Bay, which is also named for him.