Presentation on theme: "Alexander II Russia’s Loyal Emperor from 1855-1881 By: Gazina Hussain, evelyn lee, hailey tulio, emily forster & diana tejera---- PA3."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander II Russia’s Loyal Emperor from 1855-1881 By: Gazina Hussain, evelyn lee, hailey tulio, emily forster & diana tejera---- PA3
Political Nicholas l (Alexander’s father) while he lay on his death bed, famously told Alexander to “Hold on to everything!” For the rest of his life Alexander was committed to following what his father said and retaining Russia’s autocratic powers of the tsardom. Alexander 1+1 was defeated in the Crimean War.
Political Modernized Russian life Created a political climate more favorable to reform Signed Emancipation Edict Made a new modern Western-style system that gave freedom of expression and freedom to a fair trial to Russians
Political Under his throne, favor under the law for the wealthy and upper classes was replaced by what was supposed to be equality before the law. A limited democracy of sorts was created in the form of town councils, its members elected by property owners and taxpayers.
Economical In Alexander 1+1’s life, he only wished to modernize Russia as a means of strengthening the autocratic tsarist state. Also, Alexander wanted to achieve the social and economic modernization of Russia. Under Alexander II’s throne, steel, metal and coal industries started growing.
Economical Since metal, steel and coal industries started growing, Russia developed more railroads as means of transportation. The growth in rail lines enabled farmers to send their crops to consumers farther away, and to sell their crops at a more stable price. Railway expansion increased Russia's ability to export grain, providing Russia with money to invest in more industrialization.
Economical In 1870, cities and towns were given powers similar to the zemstvo – power to pursue municipal economic development and to look after the welfare of its inhabitants. So, basically the expansion had begun in the same way that it was in Western Europe and the United States, with the expansion of rail lines.
Social Some of the changes during his time was: There was a new atmosphere of toleration and reform, as seen with relaxation of press censorship. Important university reforms occurred which meant that universities were given much more greater autonomy in their affairs.
Social Also, lectures on European law and philosophy was allowed. Scholars were allowed to study overseas. New liberal professors replaced many of the conservatives that served during Nicholas I’s reign. Also, poor students did not have to pay fees for university and their education.
Social So, by 1853, 2/3 of the students at Moscow university were exempt from education fees. Also, the number of children attending primary school increased considerably as the zemstva played a key role in increasing the number of elementary schools. The government’s liberal policies made university have radicalism grow in between students.
Facts about Alexander II Evidence indicates that he was an admirer of Nicholas's autocracy and bureaucratic methods. He was the first emperor to get murdered by a member of a terrorist group. Alexander II had traveled to locations in Russia that no one in the royal family had ever traveled to before, like Siberia.
Interesting Facts Alexander II is called the "czar liberator" because he emancipated the serfs in 1861. Alexander spoke Russian, German, French, English, and Polish. Unlike his father, Alexander had experience in government before he got on the throne. At young age, he learned all about military arts, finance, and diplomacy.