Presentation on theme: "Chapter Six Training for Fitness. Principles of Training ä Principle of overload ä Principle of progression ä Principle of specificity ä Principle of."— Presentation transcript:
Principles of Training ä Principle of overload ä Principle of progression ä Principle of specificity ä Principle of regularity ä Principle of individuality
Principle of Overload Overload occurs when increased demands are made upon the body. This increased stress causes the body to adapt or adjust, thus improving physical condition.
Principle of Progression The gradual increase in exercise or activity over a period of time - the increase can be in terms of frequency, intensity or time.
Principle of Specificity Improvements in the various fitness areas require specific kinds of activity - each area of fitness requires specific demands. Training for one area does not necessarily improve another.
Principle of Regularity This principle is based on the concept that if you don’t “use it” you “lose it”. It is important to perform physical activity on a regular basis.
Principle of Individuality A training program must be based on an individual’s goals and objectives for physical activity and fitness.
Applying the Principles of Training Get fit by using the FITT guidelines… F requency I ntensity T ime T ype T ype
Increasing the difficulty of an exercise - increasing the speed of a run, amount of weight lifted, or distance a muscle is stretched. Intensity
Increasing the length of each training session. Time (Duration)
Refers to the kind of activity a person chooses for each area of his or her training program. Type
Achieving Cardiorespiratory Fitness Frequency3-5 days per week Intensity60-80% maximum heart rate Time20-60 minutes of continuous activity TypeLarge muscle movement - walking, cycling, jogging, etc.
Achieving Flexibility FrequencyAt least 2-3 times per week, 5-7 is optimal IntensitySlow stretch until mild tension is felt TimeHold each stretch 15-30 seconds, 2-4 repetitions TypeSlow and steady, no bouncing
Achieving Muscular Strength FrequencyEvery other day (2-4 times per week) IntensityHigh resistance (heavier weights) Time8-12 repetitions TypeResistance-type activity (weights and weight machines)
Achieving Muscular Endurance FrequencyEvery other day (3 days per week) IntensityLow resistance (light weights) Time12-20 repetitions TypeResistance-type activity (weights and weight machines)
Maintaining Body Composition Frequency3-5 days per week, daily is best IntensityContinuous activity that is sufficient to cause sweating Time30 minutes at least TypeLarge muscle movement (walking, cycling, jogging, etc.) that can be maintained at the appropriate intensity
The Warm-up ä A few minutes of bicycling, slow jogging, or other large muscle activity ä Static stretches for 15-30 seconds ä Slowly copying the motions of the sport you are about to perform
The Cool Down ä Continue your activity at a slow pace until heart rate is 100 beats per minute or less ä Stretching exercises ä Muscle toning exercises
Other Training Factors ä Plateau - your performance shows no improvement ä Overtraining - participating in an activity at very high intensity levels or for unusually long periods or without adequate recovery time
Other Training Factors Cross-training - combining two or more types of exercises in one workout or using different exercises alternately in successive workouts
Training Factors to Consider ä Previous involvement in physical activities ä Present fitness level ä Present health ä Medical history
Exercise Training Myths ä No pain, no gain. ä I can get fit by participating in a sport. ä A little exercise doesn’t help. ä Cardiorespiratory exercise is the most important
Training for Fitness Follow the basic principles of training to develop a program that will lead to improved health and fitness. Return to Chapter Menu