Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology and the Human Genome REVIEW CHAPTER 13 + 14a."— Presentation transcript:
Biotechnology and the Human Genome REVIEW CHAPTER a
Which enzyme? Is used in PCR to join nucleotides (not separate like it states on the study sheet) to make a strand of DNA? PCR animation ANSWER: Taq polymerase
Where was Taq polymerase discovered? A. Jamaica B. Hot Springs C. Antarctica D. Atlantic Ocean ANSWER: B Hot Springs
Which enzyme is used to cut DNA? Ligase Restriction TAQ Ti ANSWER: restriction
Which enzyme is used to paste sticky ends (bind plasmid to DNA fragment)? Ligase Restriction TAQ Ti ANSWER: ligase
Where is the plasmid? A B D A B C D
What carries genes that destroys antibiotics; Also used as a vector for genetic engineering? ANSWER: R plasmid
What is an organism that has genes inserted in it from another organism? ANSWER: transgenic
What is an organism (or plasmid) that carries an organism (or genes) into another organism? ANSWER: vector
What is a plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to give genetic material to plants? ANSWER: Ti plasmid
What matches this “sticky end?” A G T A C G T A A G C A T T AGTA TCAT Answer: TCAT
PCR is useful to do what? ANSWER: make large copies from a small amount of DNA
Who Invented the PCR? ANSWER: Kary Mullis
How does the number of DNA change with each cycle in the PCR? ANSWER: Doubles
What does a gel electrophoresis do? ANSWER: separates the DNA fragments according to size
Which DNA fragments are the longest? ANSWER: the ones at the top (near wells)
What two things determine where the strands will be on the gel? ANSWER: size of the fragments + charge (DNA is negative and will move toward the positive electrode)
Gel Electrophoresis Animation Click on the pictureClick HereClick Here
In a gel electrophoresis, what direction do the DNA fragments move? ANSWER: negative to positive Acidic to basic Positive to negative Basic to acidic Negative to positive
Fill in the blanks for the DNA fragments in a gel electrophoresis: A ________ DNA segment will travel less far A _______DNA segment will travel farther A. shorter longer B. shorter longer (see next slide for answer)
What are jumping genes? ANSWER: also called transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell Animation Quiz 5 - Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome Animation Quiz 5 - Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome
Who discovered jumping genes? ANSWER: Barbara McClintock
Where would telomeres be found? ANSWER: a region of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration.
What are RFLP’s? ANSWER: Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Cut by restriction enzymes Rflp animationRflp
What is biotechnology? ANSWER: use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment.
What is the number? Year Human Genome Project began? ANSWER: 1990
What is the number? Year Human Genome Project was completed? ANSWER: 2003
What number? Number of genes (working genes) that actually code for proteins in the human genome? ANSWER: 20,000 – 25,000
What is the number? Estimated number of genes in E. coli bacterial cell? ANSWER: 2000
What is the number? Percentage of nucleotide bases alike in all humans? ANSWER: 99.9%
What is the number? Percentage of DNA in a human cell thought to be non-coding (junk DNA)? ANSWER: 98% (was thought to be 97%)
What is the number? Of nucleotide pairs (or base pairs) in a haploid set of chromosomes? ANSWER: 3 billion
Match the GM PRODUCTS: A. Flavr Savr B. Golden Rice C. Roundup Ready D. Bt Cotton 1. given a gene increases skin toughness 2. gene isolated from soil bacterium to kill certain insects (corn and cotton borers) 3. vitamin-A producing gene added 4. gene put into soybeans to control weeds due to its glyphosate ANSWER: 1-A, 2-D, 3-B, 4-C
VNTR’s 1. Who’s child of Mom and Dad 2. Who is not?
How do you read a DNA fingerprint?
How are the DNA fingerprints made? (Put in order) ____Paper blot to transfer DNA bars to paper or photograph ____Pipette DNA in Gel wells ____Connect to voltage supply ____Cut DNA segment with restriction enzymes _____Rinse blot with probes to make autoradiograph Answer: 4, 2, 3, 1, 5
Steps of PCR A. Extension B. Annealing C. Denaturing 1. heated 94 o C to break apart DNA strands 2. DNA primers added when cooled 54 o C 3. heated to 72 o C to make the DNA strand copy ANSWER: 1-C, 2-B, 3-A
Match the scientists: A. McClintock B. Venter C. Mullis 1. discovered transposons (jumping genes) 2. Heads Ceelera, an automated genome coder at fast pace 3. devised the PCR ANSWER: 1-A, 2-B, 3-C
CSI had a small amount of blood from a crime scene. What could be done to make a bigger sample? ANSWER: PCR
What must be done to cause an egg and the udder cell of a sheep to fuse to form an embryo? ANSWER: jolt with electricity
What is this structure called? ANSWER: recombinant DNA
Alba has genes from a jellyfish. What do you call organisms that have genes from other organisms? ANSWER: transgenic
What is cloning? Clones are organisms that have exact genetic material. Identical twins. Copies of recombinant DNA ALL of the above. ANSWER: all of the above
What is the name of the first cloned sheep? ANSWER: Dolly IS SHE STILL ALIVE? No, she died early with adult diseases, like arthritis and lung cancer. (typical is years)
What process separates DNA fragments? PCR Gel electrophoresis Recombining DNA ANSWER: Gel electrophoresis
What is a Radioactive Probe? A: Labeled short strand of DNA to find a specific gene (like CF gene)
What are four goals of the HGP? 1.To determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA.
What are four goals of the HGP? 2. identify all the approximately working 25,000 genes in human DNA
What are four goals of the HGP? 3. To store this information in databases (sex offenders, soldiers).
What are four goals of the HGP? 4. To transfer related technologies to the private sector (gene therapy, drugs, vaccines).