How does the number of DNA change with each cycle in the PCR? ANSWER: Doubles
What does a gel electrophoresis do? ANSWER: separates the DNA fragments according to size
Which DNA fragments are the longest? ANSWER: the ones at the top (near wells)
What two things determine where the strands will be on the gel? ANSWER: size of the fragments + charge (DNA is negative and will move toward the positive electrode)
Gel Electrophoresis Animation Click on the pictureClick HereClick Here
In a gel electrophoresis, what direction do the DNA fragments move? ANSWER: negative to positive Acidic to basic Positive to negative Basic to acidic Negative to positive
Fill in the blanks for the DNA fragments in a gel electrophoresis: A ________ DNA segment will travel less far A _______DNA segment will travel farther A. shorter longer B. shorter longer (see next slide for answer)
What are jumping genes? ANSWER: also called transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell Animation Quiz 5 - Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome Animation Quiz 5 - Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome
Who discovered jumping genes? ANSWER: Barbara McClintock
Where would telomeres be found? ANSWER: a region of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration.
What are RFLP’s? ANSWER: Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Cut by restriction enzymes Rflp animationRflp
What is biotechnology? ANSWER: use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment.
What is the number? Year Human Genome Project began? ANSWER: 1990
What is the number? Year Human Genome Project was completed? ANSWER: 2003
What number? Number of genes (working genes) that actually code for proteins in the human genome? ANSWER: 20,000 – 25,000
What is the number? Estimated number of genes in E. coli bacterial cell? ANSWER: 2000
What is the number? Percentage of nucleotide bases alike in all humans? ANSWER: 99.9%
What is the number? Percentage of DNA in a human cell thought to be non-coding (junk DNA)? ANSWER: 98% (was thought to be 97%)
What is the number? Of nucleotide pairs (or base pairs) in a haploid set of chromosomes? ANSWER: 3 billion
Match the GM PRODUCTS: A. Flavr Savr B. Golden Rice C. Roundup Ready D. Bt Cotton 1. given a gene increases skin toughness 2. gene isolated from soil bacterium to kill certain insects (corn and cotton borers) 3. vitamin-A producing gene added 4. gene put into soybeans to control weeds due to its glyphosate ANSWER: 1-A, 2-D, 3-B, 4-C
VNTR’s 1. Who’s child of Mom and Dad 2. Who is not?
How are the DNA fingerprints made? (Put in order) ____Paper blot to transfer DNA bars to paper or photograph ____Pipette DNA in Gel wells ____Connect to voltage supply ____Cut DNA segment with restriction enzymes _____Rinse blot with probes to make autoradiograph Answer: 4, 2, 3, 1, 5
Steps of PCR A. Extension B. Annealing C. Denaturing 1. heated 94 o C to break apart DNA strands 2. DNA primers added when cooled 54 o C 3. heated to 72 o C to make the DNA strand copy ANSWER: 1-C, 2-B, 3-A