# The Pythagorean theorem

## Presentation on theme: "The Pythagorean theorem"— Presentation transcript:

The Pythagorean theorem
Although Pythagoras is credited with the famous theorem, it is likely that the Babylonians knew the result for certain specific triangles at least a millennium earlier than Pythagoras. It is not known how the Greeks originally demonstrated the proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
Right triangle "In any right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs." C 90° hypotenuse A B Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse. Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
Demonstrate the Pythagorean Theorem Many different proofs exist for this most fundamental of all geometric theorems 16(42) 9(32) C 90° 25=9+16 hypotenuse Right triangle A B The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse. 25(52) Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
Several beautiful and intuitive proofs by shearing exist 3 4 5 C 1 2 B A 5 3 The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse. 4 1 2 Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
"The area of the square built upon the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares upon the remaining sides." Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
The Indian mathematician Bhaskara constructed a proof using the above figure, and another beautiful dissection proof is shown below The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse. Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
Pythagorean Triples Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

Pythagorean Triples There are certain sets of numbers that have a very special property.  Not only do these numbers satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem, but any multiples of these numbers also satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem. For example:  the numbers 3, 4, and 5 satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem.  If you multiply all three numbers by 2  (6, 8, and 10), these new numbers ALSO satisfy the Pythagorean theorem.   The special sets of numbers that possess this property are called  Pythagorean Triples. The most common Pythagorean Triples are: 3, 4, 5 5, 12, 13 8, 15, 17 Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
The formula that will generate all Pythagorean triples first appeared in Book X of Euclid's Elements: where n and m are positive integers of opposite parity and m>n. Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

A triangle has sides 6, 7 and 10. Is it a right triangle?
The Pythagorean theorem "In any right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs." A triangle has sides 6, 7 and 10.  Is it a right triangle? The longest side MUST be the hypotenuse, so c = 10.  Now, check to see if the Pythagorean Theorem is true. Since the Pythagorean Theorem is NOT true, this triangle is NOT a right triangle. Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
The Distance Formula Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
The distance between points P1 and P2 with coordinates (x1, y1) and (x2,y2) in a given coordinate system is given by the following distance formula: Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
To see this, let Q be the point where the vertical line trough P2 intersects the horizontal line trough P1. The x coordinate of Q is x2 , the same as that of P2. The y coordinate of Q is y1 , the same as that of P1. By the Pythagorean theorem . Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
If H1 and H2 are the projection of P1 and P2 on the x axis, the segments P1Q and H1H2 are opposite sides of a rectangle , so that But so Similarly, Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
Hence Taking square roots, we obtain the distance formula: Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem
EXAMPLE The distance between points A(2,5) and B(5,9) is Marcello Pedone The Pythagorean theorem