Presentation on theme: "CML CML CSE/EEE 230: Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming Aviral Shrivastava Department of Computer Science and Engineering School of."— Presentation transcript:
CML CML CSE/EEE 230: Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming Aviral Shrivastava Department of Computer Science and Engineering School of Computing and Informatics Arizona State University Slides courtesy: Prof. Yann Hang Lee, ASU, Prof. Mary Jane Irwin, PSU, Ande Carle, UCB
CML CML Computer Architecture Hot(-est) Topic –Multi-billion dollar industry Intel - $40 billion –More than 100 International Conferences A conference every 3 days (and lasts 3 days) –Extremely fast pace of innovation Had transportation industry kept pace –We could keep car in our pockets –We could travel between any two points on earth in a fraction of a second –New car would cost less than a cent “Not a dry and dreary field where progress is glacial and new ideas atrophy from neglect” –Patterson and Hennessy, “Computer Organization and Design” –Enabler of the Information Revolution in history for Civilization After Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution
CML CML Technology Trends: Moore’s Law In 1965, Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel predicted that the number of transistors on a chip will double every 1.5 years True since since 1980! 8000X increase
CML CML How small is it? Cell processor contains more than 250 million transistors ENIAC had 18,000 vacuum tubes The original transistor built by Bell Labs in 1947 could be held in your hand, while hundreds 45nm transistors can fit on the surface of a single red blood cell.
CML Technology Trends: Processor Performance Year How fast is it? A 45nm transistor can switch on and off approximately 300 billion times a second. A beam of light travels less than a tenth of an inch during the time it takes a 45nm transistor to switch on and off.
CML CML Range of a wire in one clock cycle
CML Technology Trends: Power Consumption Year
CML How much power is it? Watts/cm 2 1 10 100 1000 i386 i486 Pentium® Pentium® Pro Pentium® II Pentium® III Hot plate Nuclear Reactor RocketNozzleRocketNozzle Pentium® 4
CML Exciting Field to Work in! Fastest developing field Extremely wide impact Computer Architecture is at the edge of the biggest revolution since the invention of computer itself –Power consumption problem –Scaling problems –Reliability problems –Performance problems
CML CML Course Objectives What is the organization of a computer? –What are the main components? –How do they interact? –How are they designed? How to compare different computers –Other than by looks Learn the language of computers –Computer-ish Lets start by opening a computer!!
CML CML A Peek inside the computer Power Supply Motherboard Disk and drives Processor Memory Disk and drive I/f Graphics I/O bus
CML CML Major Components of a Computer How do these components work together? Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output
CML CML Control 000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000 Control Decodes the Instruction Control Decodes the Instruction Processor Datapath Memory Devices Input Output Control decodes the instruction to determine what to execute
CML CML Datapath Executes the Instruction Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output contents Reg #4 ADD contents Reg #2 results put in Reg #2 Datapath executes the instruction as directed by control 000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000
CML CML Output Data Stored in Memory Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output 00000100010100000000000000000000 00000000010011110000000000000100 00000011111000000000000000001000 At program completion the data to be output resides in memory
CML CML Output Device Outputs Data Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output 00000100010100000000000000000000 00000000010011110000000000000100 00000011111000000000000000001000
CML CML The Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) instruction set architecture software hardware The interface between the software and hardware
CML CML How does this fit in? How do these simple logic elements implement such complex languages? –Simple Logic Gates AND, NAND, OR –Complex High-level Languages Functions, structs, unions, lists, array, vector, class, object CSE 100: C/C++CSE 110: Java CSE 120: Digital Design CSE 200: Concepts of CS CSE 230
CML CML In the grand scheme of things… This course cuts through several layers of abstractions CS 230 I/O systemProcessor Compiler Operating System (WinXP) Application (ex: browser) Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture Datapath & Control Transistors Memory Hardware Software Assembler
CML CML Course Administration Lectures: BYAC 270 TT, 9:00 am – 10:30 am Instructor:Aviral Shrivastava Contact: Aviral.Shrivastava@asu.edu Office Hours: BY 408, TT 10:30 am – 11:00 am TA:Ke Bai Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org@asu.edu Office Hours: MW TBD Textbook: Computer Organization and Design - The Hardware/Software Interface 4 rd Edition Patterson and Hennessy Publishers: Morgan Kaufman now Elsevier
CML CML Course Grading 7 Quizzes: 30% –45 min quiz, and then discuss solutions –The quiz with the minimum score will be automatically dropped 4 Projects:30% –Programming exercises 1 Midterm:15% –1 hour in-class exam 1 Final25% –1 hour in-class exam
CML CML Course Information Submit Projects on Blackboard –Late Projects are not acceptable –Submission may become slow near the deadline Submitting early is in your advantage Re-grade Request –Within one week Academic Integrity –Do read and understand the university “Policy on Academic Integrity” –Ask if you have questions –Ignorance is not an excuse
CML CML Yoda says… Always in motion is the future