Presentation on theme: "Heat Illness Risk Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Heat Illness Risk Management Slide Set for Unit/Installation Training Applications*Heat Illness Risk Management* This slide deck was prepared for adaption and local use by units/installation personnel when conducting heat injury and illness prevention training.The information presented in these slides and notes sections (as posted) has been approved by the Injury Prevention Program (IPP) of the US Army Public Health Command (USAPHC) as of May The IPP can be contacted at for technical consultation regarding heat illness prevention.The requirement for Army Health Illness Prevention training is established by the Army Medical Command – the current (2013) policy memorandum is at https://www.us.army.mil/suite/doc/This presentation material includes images from as well as slides from US Army Safety Center website (https://safety.army.mil/.../hotweather/2007/Heat_Injury.ppt).Additional information links and resources may be obtained from USAPHC at:LASTED UPDATED BY PHC: 17 June 2013There are notes to many of the slides in this slide deck that provide additional details for the presenter.The IPP can be contacted at for technical consultation regarding heat illness prevention.UNCLASSIFIED
2 Heat Illness Risk Management Presenters NamePresenters CommandLocal Contact Informationinsert dateThis slide deck was prepared for adaption and local use by units/installation personnel when conducting heat injury and illness prevention training. The presenter should consider any necessary adoptions to reflect local/units specific requirements and protocols.The USAPHC does not take responsibility for the appropriateness and authorization of local procedures; USAPHC IPP can however be contacted for technical consultation.UNCLASSIFIED
3 Outline Introduction and key terms Five steps of heat illness risk managementTypes of heat-related injuries:Exertional Heat Illnesses (EHI)Water intoxicationQuiz questionsExercisesThis training presentation is designed to address the key elements of a health illness prevention program as required by*** This slide deck was prepared for adaption and local use by units/installation personnel when conducting heat injury and illness prevention training. The information presented in these slides and notes sections (as posted) has been approved by the Injury Prevention Program (IPP) of the US Army Public Health Command (USAPHC) as of June The IPP can be contacted at for technical consultation regarding heat illness prevention.
4 Why you need to know about heat illness: Despite well documented and effective techniques for preventing heat illnesses, they continue to be a threat to Soldiers in training and combat.Over 1600 heat casualties in 2012 Army Active component required medical attention and/or lost duty time Even mild heat illness and dehydration can significantly degrade performanceThe best solution is prevention! In addition to this training being required per OTSG Policy Heat Injury Prevention Program for the 2013 Heat Season, 30 April 2013 at https://www.us.army.mil/suite/doc/ , Army doctrinal guidance per TB MED 507 provides operational reasons that this is required:DEHYDRATION:Degrades performanceLosing 4% of body weight due to dehydration degrades physical performance 50%This 4% body weight loss is possible in under 2 hrs!Increases core body tempEvery 1% loss of body weight increases core temp °C or °F (increasing risk of more serious heat illness)
5 Key TermsExertional Heat Illness (EHI) refers to a spectrum of disorders (e.g., cramps, heat exhaustion, heat injury, heat stroke) resulting from total body heat stress. Primarily heat casualties are forms of heat exhaustion while more severe cases are heat stroke (potentially fatal).Total Body Heat Stress = Total Heat Load on an individual =Heat generated by the body (due to metabolism and activity)+ Heat gained from the environment- Heat lost in the environmentWet Bulb Globe Temperature(WBGT) is a composite temperatureused to estimate the effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed (wind chill), and visible and infrared radiation (usually sunlight) on humansWhile there is a range of adverse effects that can result from the body over heating, the 2 major kinds of heat illnesses that are referred to as heat casualties: heat exhaustion (can be milder or more severe) and heat stroke (most severe form of heat illness and possibly fatal). The overallWet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is more than just a basic thermometer temperature reading – its determine with special equipment and calculated to reflect several components of an ‘actual temperature’ experienced by personnel that includes air, humidity and wind:WBGT is derived from the following formula: 0.7Tw + 0.2Tg + 0.1TdTw = Natural wet-bulb temperature (combined with dry-bulb temperature indicates humidity)Tg = Globe thermometer temperature (measured with a globe thermometer, also known as a black globe thermometer)Td = Dry-bulb temperature (actual air temperature)Temperatures may be in either Celsius or FahrenheitThe WBGT index was developed in 1956 by the United States Marine Corps at Parris Island to reduce heat stress injuries in recruits
6 Total Body Heat Stress Solar radiation Air Temperature & Humidity Convection(air currents)EvaporationTOTAL BODY HEAT STRESS IS BASED IN THE OVERALL HEAT REGULATION OF THE BODY:(1) Convection - is heat transfer by moving a gas or liquid over the body, whether induced by thermal currents, body motion or natural movement of air (wind) or water.(a) Heat loss - occurs when air temperature is below skin temperature.(b) Heat gain - occurs when air temperature approaches or exceeds that of the body.(2) Radiation – heat loss and gain.(a) Heat loss - occurs when surrounding objects have lower surface temperature than the body.(b) Heat gain - occurs when surrounding objects have higher surface temperature than body surface temperature. Temperature combinations of the solar, ground and surrounding objects may exist which result in body heat gain, even if the air temperature is below that of the body.(3) Conduction – Conduction of heat to or from solid objects is usually minimal, since little contact surface is involved.(a) Although minimal – heat loss occurs from boots to the ground when the surface ground’s temperature is lower than the boots.(b) Although minimal – heat gain occurs from the ground to the boots usually occurs during hot weather.(4) Evaporation - evaporation of water produces cooling – heat loss. The max heat loss from evaporation is a function of the rate of air motion over the skin and the water vapor pressure differences between the surrounding air and the wet skin.(a) Sweating – sweat glands secrete fluid onto the skin surface permitting evaporative cooling when liquid is converted to water vapor.(b) In hot environments, the amount of heat loss achievable via sweating is the major determinant of the body’s ability to maintain a normal body core temperature.Metabolic (internal)Heat Production
7 WBGT categories 1 <= 79.9 <= 26.6 White 2 80-84.9 26.7-29.3 CategoryWBGT, °FWBGT, °CFlag color1<= 79.9<= 26.6White2Green3Yellow4Red5=> 90=> 32.2BlackREMEMBER: WBGT is not just ‘temperature’ – includes humidityAlso - when using this chart:Add 5°F for rucksack or body armorAdd 10°F if in MOPP 4
8 Five Steps of Heat Illness Risk Management Identify hazardsAssess hazardsDevelop controlsImplement controlsSupervise and evaluate
9 IDENTIFY HAZARDS: Key Risk Factors for EHI EnvironmentHigher temperatureHigh humidity (WBGT)ActivitiesHigh exertionHeavy loads/gearRepeated strenuous daysLack of AcclimatizationIndividual:Poor fitness (2 mi run > 16 min)Body mass index (BMI) > 26Age>40Gender (female)Minor illnessMedication (e.g. antihistamine, blood pressure, decongestants)Alcohol past 24 hoursPrior heat injurySkin rash, sunburn, or poison ivyBlood donation (<3 days)Sleep deprivedALSO: Highly motivatedMost commonly though of risk factors are the climate/temperature and the level of physical activity /exertion, however there are numerous individual risk factors to be aware of – especially consider when a single individual has more than one of listed risk factors – the more risk factors the greater the potential risk of EHI.DRUGS THAT INTERFERE WITH TEMPERATURE REGULATION:Antihistamines (benadryl, atarax, ctm)Decongestants (sudafed)High Blood Pressure (diuretics, beta blockers)Psychiatric Drugs (tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychoticsNOTE: Despite certain Army policies and training documentation that has been published, to date ( 2013) there is currently NO scientific evidence that caffeine, energy drinks, “fat burners” or dietary supplements affect the body’s ability to regulate heat.Why Highly motivated personnel are at risk- the desire to meet or exceed standards may lead some soldiers to continue to push themselves as early signs/symptoms of EHI occur. These soldiers should not be discouraged from pushing themselves but cadre should be aware of their tendency to push it so that they can be watched more closely.
10 IDENTIFY HAZARDS: NOTE Hot weather is a key risk factor for heat injuries HOWEVER: Heat illnesses can occur under green flag temperature conditions due to previous days’ conditions and dehydration.
11 IDENTIFY HAZARDS: Heat Illness Hazards are Cumulative H Heat category past 3 daysE Exertion level past 3 daysA Acclimation/ other individual risk factorsT Time (length of exposure and recovery time)A cluster of heat illnesses on prior days = HIGH RISK
12 IDENTIFY HAZARDS: Lack of Acclimatization Body needs to adjust to environmental heat stressors prior to high exertion activitiesAcclimatization requires aerobic exercise in warm environment. Simply being outside doing normal activities is not sufficientAcclimatization guide on USAPHC Heat Illness Prevention webpage
13 ASSESS HAZARDS Utilize the WBGT temperature index Know your Soldiers Add 5°F for rucksack or body armorAdd 10°F if in MOPP 4Know your SoldiersIdentify individual's at increased riskMonitor and maintain hydration statusAssess morning and evening as well as during trainingFactor in previous days’ conditions & activitiesConsider temperature, activity levels, illnessesUse a risk management matrixThe web bulb temp index alone does not represent the full extent of the hazards – it must be adjusted (raised) to address additional clothing/protective equipment. Also – be aware that- Some persons are at higher risk so may have heat illness at lower temps – especially if illness, on certain medications, or had previous heat illnessIntense activity will increase hazardprevious high activity days and or high temp days can result in heat illness even a moderate temperature day
14 Example Heat Illness Risk Management Matrix Risk FactorsRisk Level0 points/circleLow Risk1 point/circleMedium Risk2 points/circleHigh Risk3 points/circleExtreme RiskRisk Management WorksheetAll controls implementedNot all controls implementedWBGT Add 5 F backpack or body armor< Cat 1Cat 1Cat 2-3Cat 4-5Back-to-back Cat 5 days12-3>4Heat Illnesses in past 2 daysHeat CrampsHeat ExhaustionHeat Stroke/ DeathWorkload in past 2 days (see TR workload classification chart)EasyEasy or ModerateModerate or HardHardProjected workloadHeat acclimatization days>137-133-6<3Leader/NCO presenceFull TimeSubstantialMinimalNoneCadre duty experience18 months7-18 months1-6 months<1 monthCommunication System(tested at training site)Radio and landline phoneLandline phone onlyRadio onlyPrevious 24 hours sleep>7 hours5-7 hours2-4 hours<2 hoursFood/salty snacks every 4 hours<4 hours4-6 hours6-7 hoursOnsite 91W/CLS and iced sheets(min. 8 single bed sheets/company in cooler)Both iced sheets & Medic, EMT, or CLSOnly Iced sheetsMedic, EMT, or CLSAdd Circled Blocks with points/circleTotal Score: 0-7 = Low Risk; 7-15 = Medium Risk; = High Risk; = Extreme Risk>11 Total Score should have onsite Medic, EMT, or CLS and organic evacuation transportation.Prior an training or operational activity leaders should prepare a risk assessment matrix like this one to determine the degree of heat hazard risk to units. High or Extremely High risk conditions should be avoided
15 DEVELOP CONTROLS Plan in advance: Estimate heat risk level 1 day priorAdjust activity distances, durations, pace, and loadsConduct high-intensity training in cooler morning hoursEnsure proper resources at appropriate locationsFunctional WBGTsWater/electrolytesIce sheets (in cooler filled 1/3 water, 2/3 ice)Medical: resources, locations, communication systemsEstablish SOPs, train, and test SoldiersHeat Illness Prevention and Hydration cards and sunscreen to allPlace Heat Illness Prevention posters and urine guides in bathrooms, bulletin boards, DFAC, training areas, etc.Identify how to monitor hydration & high risk personnelWhile Planning – identify ways to minimize the hazard -Consider:Previous 2 days of heat exposure and Predicted Heat Category for that dayTraining events (distance, pace, breaks, etc.) and Work-rest cycle, hydration guidelines, etc.Uniform/equipmentLocation, Time of dayPlan communication capabilities, water, food/snacks, medical, and evacuation support.Recommend commercial electrolyte beverages (diluted to half-strength) in high-risk months (or when daily water consumption exceeds gallons/day).Ensure water control points throughout designated training areas.Ensure canteens/hydration packs are properly cleaned daily (FM 21-10), especially when using flavored commercial electrolyte beverages.Pre-plan changes if METT-TC/Heat Category changes or if heat casualties occur - what to do if?__________________________________Parachute 550 cord or the Ogden cord* can be tied to: button hole, ear plug case, or shoe laces to:tie knots or black beads (one for each canteen ) to indicate for DAILY hydration statusRed beads on cord are used for “at risk” soldiers.ALTERNATIVES FOR MARKING HIGH RISK: Velcro Red patch on upper left sleeve or red arm band* Ogden cords can be locally purchased for $1.00 per package (138 (6X9mm) pony beads) Other colors consist of black, red, or blue beads can make 23 Ogden cords. A 1,200 foot roll of Type II Nylon (550 cord) costs $ Approximately 757 Ogden cords can be produced from 1 roll._________________________________
16 NOTE: All fluids provide water, whether milk, fruit juice, etc.
17 See USAPHC Website for Heat Illness Prevention Products: NOTE:This card is a useful field tool but is not a definitive indicator of hydration status and not for clinical use. Urine color can be affected by certain food or medications. Urine color will take some time to change after consumption of fluids or after high physical activityThis is an example “card” for soldiers made available by PHC – it also comes as a poster.Hardcopies of these and other heat prevention products can be ordered free online from USAPHC atNOTE: this urine chart is NOT a definitive indicator of hydration status and NOT for clinical use. Urine color can be affected by certain food or medications. Urine color will take some time to change after consumption of fluids
18 IMPLEMENT CONTROLS: Monitoring Hydration and Personnel Buddy system- Assign Low risk to High risk personnelTrack high risk personnel and individual hydration statusDaily intake (1 knot/black bead per canteen)Use red beads for “at-risk” SoldiersPlace water at key pointse.g., at land navigation objectivesProvide and monitorElectrolyte drinksMeal intakeLocal protocol should be established to both identify those who are at greater risk and the hydration status f each soldier (this can help determine if an heat related injury could be due to too much water or over hydration (hyponatremia) as is discussed later_______________________________Parachute 550 cord or the Ogden cord* can be tied to: button hole, ear plug case, or shoe laces to:tie knots or black beads (one for each canteen ) to indicate for DAILY hydration statusRed beads on cord are used for “at risk” soldiers.ALTERNATIVES FOR MARKING HIGH RISK: Velcro Red patch on upper left sleeve or red arm band* Ogden cords can be locally purchased for $1.00 per package (138 (6X9mm) pony beads) Other colors consist of black, red, or blue beads can make 23 Ogden cords. A 1,200 foot roll of Type II Nylon (550 cord) costs $ Approximately 757 Ogden cords can be produced from 1 roll._________________________________
19 IMPLEMENT CONTROLS: Change events to minimize heat load Avoid back-to back strenuous days especially Category 4-5Modify time of day – complete activities earlier/laterAdjust Activity:Wide spacing between SoldiersReduce pace and/or distanceBreaksShade Soldiers whenever possibleReduce clothing and load:UniformBackpacks, body armor, helmets, etc (training)Dump excess heatAllow/provide field showersCool overnight temp (fans, air conditioning, cool showers)Implement planned protocols to avoid or mitigate health risks-e.g., skip back to back days, minimize activity intensity and clothing and load, change time of day, provide adequate hydration breaks and water supply, provide shade and shower systems(NOTE: Wide spacing between Soldiers = e.g., 60 feet)
20 SUPERVISE AND EVALUATE When controls fail, heat injuries occur!Spot checks:TroopsCadre/leadersMedicalBe familiar with signs/symptoms of EHILook for mild signs/symptoms stop from progressingTake immediate action when EHI is observed or suspectedWhen in doubt, call 911 and begin cooling!!If a heat injury occurs stop training and assess situationSpot check TROOPS:Confirm Battle Buddy System is in place.Monitor food intake (food/salty snack every 4 hrs or less).Check Ogden cords for water intake. Are they drinking BEFORE PT in morning?Monitor urine output (e.g. ‘color test’, and/or Soldiers should be urinating a full bladder every 2-3 hours)Ask questions that require clear thinking (What day is it? Where are you?).Look for Soldiers who are visibly ‘wilting’ or struggling.Look for Soldiers bypassing controls (e.g. not drinking in order to have a full canteen for an inspection).Spot Check CADRE/JUNIOR LEADERS:“What is the current Heat Category?”“Who is at risk?” ”Who is their buddy?”“What actions would you take if … ”Is water available and accessible?Are rapid cooling supplies on-hand?Do you have communication with medical support?Do you have your HIP (Heat Injury Prevention) Pocket Guide card?Spot check medical supportCheck equipment, personnel, evacuation vehicle, communication, ice sheets for rapid cooling.If no organic medical support, check for coordination of alternatives (gate access for off-post EMS, travel time, procedures, etc.)
21 Recognizing Heat-Related Illnesses Water Intoxication Hyponatremia DizzinessHeadacheNauseaWeaknessClumsy/unsteady walkMuscle crampsHeatExhaustionWater Intoxication HyponatremiaHeatStrokeHistory of large water consumptionConfusionVomiting(liquid, no food)ConvulsionsClear urineProfuse sweatingConvulsions and chillsVomitingConfusion, mumblingCombativePassing out (unconscious)KOW THE SIGNS AND CATCH SYMPTOMS EARLY TO PREVENT FOR EVERE CASES:HEAT EXHAUSTION – “Canaries in the coal mine” - need to catch these before they get to more extreme case of “stroke- catch early as they need rest/water/evaluation and possible medical careHEAT STROKE – Medical emergency – Abnormal brain function-rapid cooling and EVAC! These cases can be fatalHYPONATREMIA– Medical emergency – EVAC!NOTE: Most often occurs in TRADOC IET units, especially during BCT/OSUTMental status changesVomitingHistory of consumption of large volume of waterPoor food intakeAbdomen distended/bloatedLarge amounts of clear urine (if urine)- Do not give more water or IV! If awake, allow Soldier to consume salty foods or snacks
22 Reacting to a Heat Illness/Casualty Event MOVE victim to cool location (e.g., shade, A/C car, building)ASSESS victim to determine type of EHISigns/symptomsHydration (knots in 550 cord) to check for hyponatremiaRisk level (red beads or risk factors)Mental status (for heat stroke)Designate single person to continue monitoringDECIDE which EHI and take proper management approachHeat Exhaustion: rest in shade, rehydrateHeat Stroke: begin rapid cooling, evacuate immediatelyHyponatremia: evacuate immediatelyEVALUATE other Soldiers and adjust training as necessary.“M.A.D.E. in the Shade” - just follow these rulesIt is critical that a specific person is assigned to STAY with victim and continuously monitor all changes including mental status –Even the slight changes that can occur in minutes may not be noticed if different personnel are checking victim – these slight changes can be critical in ensure best outcome for victim
23 Identify Exertional Heat Stroke – Perform a Mental Status Check Anyone can do a mental status check by asking the following questionsWhat is your name?What month is it? What year is it?Where are we/you?What were you doing before you became ill?In any case of heat illness symptom – perform a mental health check with these questions – if victim demonstrates mental confusion assume heat stroke victim and get medical help/evacuation ASAPAnyone who undergoes a mental status change, including loss of consciousness, as a result of exertion during warm weather will be assumed to be a heat stroke victim until determined otherwise by medical authority.
24 Heat exhaustion versus Heat Stroke Management Rest Soldier in shadeLoosen uniform/ remove head gearHave Soldier drink 2 quarts of water over 1 hourEvacuate if no improvement in 30 min, or if Soldier’s condition worsensHEAT STROKEIf Soldier’s brain isn’t working correctly then COOL and CALL!!StripRapid cool (ice sheets)Call for evacuationContinue cooling during transportMaintain same person to observe for mental change-If in doubt, or vomiting more than, once treat like heat stroke instead of exhaustion-Rule out hyponatremia prior giving fluidsHEAT STROKE:The sooner a victim with heat stroke is cooled, the less damage will be done to his brain and organsNOTES:When stripping victim ensure a same gender helper is present, if possible.The same person should observe the Soldier during cooling and evacuation in order to spot symptom changes.To cool:Cover all but face with iced sheets.Ensure the iced sheet is soaked prior to applying to the casualty.Fan the entire body.Stop cooling if victims starts shivering
25 General Evacuation Criteria Vomits more than onceNo improvement after 1 hour of rest and hydrationGeneral deteriorationMental status changes/confusionLoss of consciousnessSoldiers displaying any of these criteria may be suffering heat stroke rather than heat exhaustionAny soldier who requires cooling with iced sheets should be evacuated to the ERSoldiers displaying any of these criteria (vomiting, no improvement or getting worse during1 hr rest and hydration, or mental status change or loss of consciousness) may be suffering heat stroke rather than heat exhaustionAny soldier who requires cooling with iced sheets should be evacuated to the ERIt is critical that a specific person is assigned to STAY with victim from field through transport to medical care and continuously monitor all changes including mental status – Even the slight changes that can occur in minutes may not be noticed if different personnel are checking victim – these slight changes can be critical in ensure best outcome for victim
26 Pre-hospital careEnsure specific individual is assigned to continuously monitorCooling is the priority- can reduce mortality from 50% to <5%Iced sheets (most effective) but also:Drench with waterFanShadeStop cooling if shivering occursRemove outer layers of clothingRest with feet propped (helmet, sandbag, etc)If conscious, allow victim to sip cool waterIf unconscious, monitor airway and breathingIt is critical that a specific person is assigned to STAY with victim from field through transport to medical care and continuously monitor all changes including mental status – Even the slight changes that can occur in minutes may not be noticed if different personnel are checking victim – these slight changes can be critical in ensure best outcome for victimImmediate Cooling is key – it can be what saves a life. However, if shivering occurs – stop ice and cooling!Remove outer clothing and prop feet up.Try to get a conscious victim to SIP water and if no indication of previous excessive water consumptionIf unconscious monitor breathing ( perform CPR if necessary)
27 Rapid cooling (ice sheets) Except face, cover as much exposed skin as possibleAlso cover the top of the headWhen sheets warm up, put back into cooler and switch with other clean cold sheetsContinue during evacuationMaintain same observerStop if shiveringIf ice sheets available – cover as much of exposed skin and top of head – but not faceChange out sheets when they get warmRemove if victim starts to shiverIt is critical that a specific person is assigned to STAY with victim from field through transport to medical care and continuously monitor all changes including mental status – Even the slight changes that can occur in minutes may not be noticed if different personnel are checking victim – these slight changes can be critical in ensure best outcome for victim
28 Medical Support Issues Know:When to evacuateWhere to evacuateHow to evacuateMedical professionals train others:Evacuation decision guidanceCool down with ice sheetsCarry adequate iced sheetsCoordinate non-military ambulance support (garrison/off-post)Conduct tests to ensure 100% communicationSome installations only have clinics instead of hospitals. Some have no Emergency Room.Some units have no organic ground ambulance support.What are alternatives?Medical professionals train others on heat injury evacuation decision guidance. Most important training is how to cool down the soldier (iced sheet treatment)Always carry iced sheets (e.g., 8 sheets per company in large ice water cooler)NOTE: Wash wet sheets and clean cooler dailyCoordinate for unit transport and non-military ambulance support (garrison or off-post).What support can they provide?What is their level of training?Do they have gate access?Conduct tests to ensure 100% communication (Cell phone dead zones, radio interfaces).
29 Summary EHI remains a threat to Soldiers and the Mission 5 steps of heat illness risk managementRecognize heat-related illnessesEHIHeat ExhaustionHeat StrokeWater intoxicationKnow what to do -Now some quiz questions andscenarios….
30 HEAT ILLNESS RISK MANAGEMENT QUIZ QUESTIONS What is heat load?Which of the 3 parts of the WBGT is most significant?How many (F°) are added to WBGT for body armor?What drugs can increase risk of EHI?What are 3 other personal risk factors for EHI?Name 3 controls can be done to reduce risk of EHI?What 2 things do you do to monitor High risk personnel?What is the most severe form of EHI?What is the most critical action for a suspect EHS victim?When and how is the ice sheet used?Heat generated by the body + heat gained from environment – heat lost to environmentWBGT= 0.7T(wet-humidity) T(dry temp) + 0.1T(wind): Humidity is key!5 F° are added to WBGT for body armorCold, flu, blood pressure, and certain antidepressants (NOT caffeine or dietary supplements)See slide 8See examples below- Pair up with a low risk Buddy, - Mark with red beads/patchHeat strokeCool (and call)When vomited >once or otherwise determined/suspected to be in heat stroke_____________________________________________________Example controls:Move training to cooler times/places (always drink BEFORE early am runs).Adjust work-rest cycles (TR ).Drink cool water frequently (but no more than 1.5 qts/hr or 12 qts/day).Eat food (vegetables, fruits, salty snacks, electrolyte-beverages or gels* (every 4 hrs or less).Consume sufficient electrolytes (salty snacks/soups, electrolyte beverages or gels).Ensure cooling capabilities (showers, fans). Adjust clothing-equipment.Wear sunscreen lotion (SPF 50, sweat proof).
31 Heat Illness Risk Management Exercise 1: FTX 8K FOOT MARCH SITUATION: A BCT company conducting an 8KM foot march at approximately 0700 (July). It is week 4. WBGT: WBGT: It is WBGT 3 (Yellow). It has been WBGT 4 for 2 preceding days.UNIFORM/EQUIPMENT: Soldiers were wearing their ACU with pants unbloused and rolled 2x, sleeves rolled 2x, combat boots, advanced combat helmet and ALICE pack (modified IAW with guidance).EXERCISE/WORKLOAD: Soldiers have been qualifying at the range for M16A2 rifle marksmanship and conducting physical training from 0530 to 0630 everyday during this week 4 of BCT.SOP: Installation SOP requires any uniform or POI changes to reduce the heat load to be made by Senior Leader on the ground.SUPPORT: Unit does not have organic medical support. Med Clinic is approx 2 miles away. Each platoon has CLS-trained Drill NCOs.EVENT: PVT Golf was on prescribed ENTEX for colds. PVT Golf fell down twice then collapsed at the 4km point. Unit cadre took his temperature via Thermoscan at 103º F. 1SG Hotel reached PVT Golf and noted symptoms were the same to those he had witnessed with his own father’s heart attack. Cadre evacuated PVT Golf to the nearest clinic (1.6 miles away/ a two-minute drive) where PVT Golf received 2-IV’s, required artificial respiration, and his temp rose to 108º F. Ice sheets were used and PVT Golf was evacuated by ground ambulance to an Army Community Hospital and was subsequently transferred to an Army Medical Center (AMC) later that day. His condition improved that day but developed signs of possible liver failure the next day and Med staff arranged for a liver transplant. On third day PVT Golf suffered a heart attack and was pronounced dead within the hour.Conduct an AAR.:What actions IAW the Risk Management process should have been taken?What actions should you as the senior leader on the ground take NOW?
32 Heat Illness Risk Management Exercise 2: RIFLE RANGE SITUATION: An OSUT company is on a 5k march from the rifle range to the barracks at 1500 hours in a regular formation. Pace is 2.5 mph on a hard surface. It is Week 4.WBGT: It is WBGT 2 (Green). It has been WBGT 3/4 previous 3 days.UNIFORM/EQUIPMENT: Soldiers are wearing BDUs, patrol caps, web belts with canteens and ponchos, and rifles. Sleeves are down and pants are bloused.EXERCISE/WORKLOAD: Soldiers have been training all day since They took the PT test yesterday and the obstacle course the previous day.SOP: Installation SOP allows the Senior Leader on-the-ground to make any uniform or POI changes to reduce the heat load.SUPPORT: Unit does not have organic medical support (field ambulance and Medic/EMT). Ambulance service is provided by a local civilian hospital 20 minutes away. Each platoon has CLS-trained Drill NCOs.EVENT: Pvt Alpha wanders off into the tree line and is talking to the trees, mumbling incoherently. The Platoon NCO, SSG November, puts Pvt Alpha back into the marching formation at the head of the formation “to slow the march pace down.” Pvt Alpha wanders off again, talking to himself, unresponsive to questions.Conduct an AAR:What actions IAW the Risk Management process should have been taken?What actions should you as the senior leader on the ground take NOW?
33 Heat Illness Risk Management Exercise 3: TRAINING SITUATION: A BCT company was doing a 3k road march in a regular formation at 1400 hrs (June). Pace is 3.5 mph on an asphalt road. It is Week 2.WBGT: It is WBGT 2 (Green)(84° WBGT). It has been WBGT 2 the previous 3 days.UNIFORM/EQUIPMENT: Soldiers are wearing BDUs, patrol caps, body armor without plates, web belts with canteens and ponchos, and rifles. Sleeves are down and pants are bloused.EXERCISE/WORKLOAD: Soldiers have been training all day since Last 3 days have been classroom training.SOP: Installation SOP allows the Senior Leader on-the-ground to make any uniform or POI changes to reduce the heat load.SUPPORT: Ambulance service is provided by a local military hospital. Each platoon has CLS-trained Drill NCOs.EVENT: Pvt Bravo collapses and is unconscious for >5 minutes. The SGT Delta, the Platoon CLS, thinks it is a Heat Stroke and starts Rapid Cooling. Pvt Bravo regains consciousness after 5 minutes and appears ok. SGT Delta takes Pvt Bravo to the BN medic’s office to get his opinion, but the medic is not in. SGT Delta then takes Pvt Bravo to the BDE medic to get her opinion, but she is not in. Finally, as Pvt Bravo’s condition worsens, SGT Delta takes him to the hospital at 1700 hrs.Conduct an AAR.What actions IAW the Risk Management process should have been taken?What actions should you as the senior leader on the ground take NOW?
34 Heat Illness Risk Management Exercise 4: QUALIFYING SITUATION: BCT Soldiers are qualifying on the M16 at the weapons firing range. A Range Control Officer is in charge of the range.WBGT: It is WBGT 4 (RED). It has been WBGT 4 the previous 3 days.UNIFORM/EQUIPMENT: Soldiers are wearing BDUs, helmets, body armor with plates, and rifles. Sleeves are rolled up and pants are bloused.EXERCISE/WORKLOAD: Soldiers have been in classroom training all day indoors in A/C since 0500.SOP: Installation SOP allows the Senior Leader on-the-ground to make any uniform or POI changes to reduce the heat load.SUPPORT: Ambulance service is provided by the local military hospital. An ambulance with a Medic/EMT is on the range.EVENT: PVT Echo, goes to the SGT Charlie, the Drill Instructor and reports that she feels ill. She fails to tell SGT Charlie that she is a previous heat injury. She is directed to hydrate and to continue qualifying. PVT Echo moves on to the range, begins firing, and collapses unconscious. The medic, SP4 Whiskey, puts PVT Echo in the A/C bus, does not have Rapid Cooling supplies, and attempts to start an IV 3 times without success. He advises SGT Charlie that he needs a MEDEVAC immediately. SGT Charlie declines the request, stating a MEDEVAC will close the range, throwing off the training schedule, and he will get in trouble if he has an heat injury on the range. SP4 Whiskey loses PVT Echo’s pulse and starts CPR, requesting a MEDEVAC again. SGT Charlie requests the MEDEVAC.Conduct an AAR.:What actions IAW the Risk Management process should have been taken?What actions should you as the senior leader on the ground take NOW?
35 Additional Information Links to Army Policy statements, heat injury references, TRADOC Policy, and Heat Injury Prevention Products are available on the Public Health Command Heat Illness Prevention webpage atAlso – see the TRADOC Surgeon Heat Risk Manual at