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2011 Internationalisation of Pedagogy and Curriculum in Higher Education: Exploring New Frontiers HEA/UKCISA Teaching International Students (TIS) project.

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Presentation on theme: "2011 Internationalisation of Pedagogy and Curriculum in Higher Education: Exploring New Frontiers HEA/UKCISA Teaching International Students (TIS) project."— Presentation transcript:

1 2011 Internationalisation of Pedagogy and Curriculum in Higher Education: Exploring New Frontiers HEA/UKCISA Teaching International Students (TIS) project conference University of Warwick, 16 – 17 June, 2011 Developing intercultural competence: the challenges for learning, teaching and assessment Debbie Corder Auckland University of Technology

2 Developing intercultural competence: the challenges for learning, teaching and assessment The nature of IC/ICC Model of ICC learning, teaching and assessment Rationale for integrating technology and home ethnography Evidence of student learning Assessment Conclusion – challenges and lessons learnt

3 Intercultural Competence Byram’s (1997) framework Skills (interpreting and relating) (savoir comprendre) Interpret and compare Knowledge (savoirs) Knowledge about ‘other’ and ‘own’… Education (critical cultural awareness/political awareness) (savoir s’engager) Critically evaluate explicit criteria, perspectives, practices and products Attitudes (savoir être) Openness and curiosity Skills (discovery and interaction) (savoir apprendre/faire) Acquire new knowledge (and apply in real time) 3

4 Research shows that : ‘... intercultural understanding is not an automatic by-product of intercultural encounters’ (Ehrenreich, 2006, p.192) Knowledge - culture/theory ( meta-language to express ideas/cultural framework ) Opportunities for reflection to develop criticality (Kohonen, 2005; Sercu, 2007). We adapt through work and learning, but we don’t achieve maturity or self-determination without reflection ( Stickler & Emke, 2011) ‘We transform our frames of reference through critical reflection on the assumptions upon which our interpretations, beliefs, and habits of mind or points of view are based.... Self-reflection can lead to significant personal transformations’. (Mezirow, 1997, p. 7) Experiential learning - incorporates socio-constructivist (active engagement of the learner) and socio-cultural approaches (collaborative learning) 4

5 Nature of learning and teaching activities Exploration of a range of authentic material: eg videos, films, survey results, reviews, advertisements, cartoons. Opportunities for cross-cultural encounters and experiences: Scenarios/critical incidents (classroom environment and outside the classroom (home ethnography - for skills of discovery and interaction; study abroad... Jackson, 2006; Roberts et al, 2001) Support (SCAFFOLDING) for learners to notice differences between the new input and their own culture (existing frames of reference). Opportunities (TIME) to think about, explore and discuss their findings (dialogue and reflection).

6 Model for intercultural competence - learning, teaching and assessment (Corder & U, 2009)

7 Dimension 1 Active, concrete, experiential Stage 1 experience, notice application (prior knowledge) Stage 2 discussion interaction Stage 3 scaffolding, guidance theoretical framework application

8 Dimension 2 Introspective, reflective, abstract conceptualization Stage 4 reflection, analysis [blogs, wikis] Stage 5 peer and lecturer feedback scaffolding, guidance

9 Rationale for technology – pedagogical needs Socio-constructivist/socio-cultural approach: active engagement and collaboration in learning: Reflection, discussion/collaboration through interaction online (not isolated). By enabling social interactions via an electronic medium, unrestrained by space, time and pace, Web technologies actually expand and transform the social interaction space of collaborative learning. (Cecez-Kecmanovic & Webb (1999, p. 2, cited in Stickler & Emke, 2011, p. 149) Input – visual learning is powerful (Terantino, 2011) Teaching and management of learning and assessment – feedback and scaffolding over time (developmental) - has been much more effective than paper-based or traditional methods (essays, examinations, inventories)




13 Second Life and intercultural competence Opportunities for cross cultural encounters and experiences to develop ICC and to make friends (supported shock treatment - skills of adjustment and adaptation; Byram’s ‘residence’ in another culture objective (attitudes’ dimension) Develop awareness of identity and how to present it (construction of identity) through an avatar; ability to shift between identities. Experience different regions that model cultural assumptions – exposure to different perspectives, development of tolerance.. Join a community of practice to engage in joint activities and discussions, help each other, share information (collaboration). (Diehl & Prins, 2008; Engage in different types of dialogue: conversation, inquiry, debate, instruction, use languages. (Diehl & Prins, 2008) 3D visualization and sensory experiences that are harder to simulate in the campus-based and online classrooms. Caters for all learners: auditory, visual, and kinesthetic. (Calongne, 2008)

14 Example of first year student reflection on own learning (blog) NZ European student:... at the beginning of this paper, I didn't ever really think about who I was in terms of my culture, but certain incidents within this paper really opened my eyes up to that. For example, the time we had to bring in an artifact that represented our culture, I didn't bring anything because I couldn't think of anything that wasn't superficial like some gum boots or a bottle of L&P. But when I was doing research for the topic of Friendship for our group project, I went into depth about cultural identity and what my culture was, because I wanted to be able to define what friendship was for New Zealand Pakehas. I found out that I did have a culture that I could relate to on a certain level, it was just that my personal identity was a lot stronger than my cultural identity. Working within the group project, I think I also learnt to be far more interculturally competent. Just taking one of my group members for example, who hardly talked and was of a different ethnicity to me, we got to the point where we could be open with each other. It took some time, but we got around the barriers of high context/low context and became friends.

15 Example of first year student reflection on own learning (blog) A Maori student The thing I am most grateful for about this paper was learning more about myself. I have learnt so much about my culture and my iwi and am proud that I could finally stand up and confidently talk about them :) Soo thank you (to teachers)! For helping me realise that learning about my own culture is just as important as learning about others :) A refugee (mature student) I think I have improved my understanding of cultural issues better than before in this semester. When I first heard about this paper I was like “oh that is easy” because I grew up in multicultural countries even I know four different languages. However this paper has boosted my existing skills by applying theories and cultural frameworks. I felt that now I am starting to be intercultural competent.

16 Attitude (openness, flexibility and curiosity) I think I did well to do all the second life tasks that were set out, as I definantly wasn’t flexible at the start of the course to do these. I was curious about Cheviot’s experience in Second Life and how he felt much more comfortable in there than he does in real life. I also think that I was open enough to explore it with an open mind and although I won’t be visiting again I can see through the final presentation how it did allow us a forum to explore other cultures and then compare how differently we perceived them with each other. (Tehani)

17 Tandem learning – ethnographic activities in SL Tandem SL exercises have helped to develop my observation skills and has given me a deeper respect for others perspectives and opinions. We investigated the same places and yet what we observed, our language expressions and mental frameworks reflected varying beliefs and values... Because of our different levels of exposure to temples and traditional churches our perceptions and interpretation of what the symbols meant were very diverse. (Xstar – mature student)

18 Student learning – triangulation with multiple learning, teaching and assessment tools, assisted by technology Formative/summative blogs (critical reflections, comparison, interpretation, curiosity, openness, collaboration) Final polished blog, summary of learning – (summative of above) Summative: Wikis - managing group/tandem members (autonomy, behaviour); dialogue/communication (collaboration); repository for student research (knowledge, skills of discovery); write up of own research and analysis of the experience (attitude, criticality); teacher scaffolding. Oral presentation – usually with technology (analysis, self assessment, and evidence of attitude, behaviour and knowledge) Other: Peer evaluations (evidence which can support or negate self assessment of group members) Module evaluations (evidence of awareness of learning)

19 Tandem wiki presentation Assessment criteria for content Learning outcomes and content of presentation 1, 3, 4, & 5 Quality of recording of observations – what and how? 2, 3, 5, 6 & 7 Depth of analysis – why? 1, 2, 4 & 6 Depth of understanding of own cultural framework and that of tandem buddy 1, 2, 3 & 5 Competent application of theories/ models/ frameworks to demonstrate depth of understanding 6 Reflection on achievement of learning outcomes 7 Evidence of collaboration throughout the project (planning, structuring, general discussion)

20 Criteria for A Grade in presentation A Excellent quality of content demonstrating in-depth analysis. Extremely competent delivery skillfully supported with appropriate evidence from ethnographic activities and relevant theory. Excellent understanding of own cultural framework and that of tandem buddy’s. Extremely thorough analysis of situations and materials. High level of self-awareness and understanding of intercultural knowledge and skills.

21 Criteria for A Grade for polished tandem wiki A = Well-structured introduction and conclusion, with excellent evidence of collaboration and knowledge of overall content. The individual pages demonstrate excellent critical reflective analysis of own cultural framework and that of tandem buddy from the observations in the ethnographic activities. Relevant themes are identified and analysed at a high level with reference to appropriate theory. Comparisons with tandem buddy are made at both cultural and individual levels and demonstrate a high level of criticality, along with in-depth analysis and reflection on learning from the ethnographic activities and experiences. Connections are made to dump pages for detail where appropriate. Excellent links to learning outcomes. References must be correct APA format.

22 Overall A Grade Band for the module (final check) Criteria for intercultural learning: Excellent description and evaluation of learning process, and high level of understanding and recognition of impact of activities and events in the course on personal intercultural learning. Criteria for content and analysis: Excellent quality of content covering wide range of issues. Excellent range of appropriate resources used. Extremely thorough analysis of situations and materials used. High level of self-awareness. High level of understanding of intercultural issues.

23 Conclusion Challenges and lessons learnt Finding relevant, current, authentic activities. Needing clear learning outcomes and good criteria but with flexibility. Limiting volume of content to allow for discussion and application (student-centred) Avoiding being over-zealous with number of tools (technical or otherwise). Dealing with students who are not computer literate, student resistance to using technology, particularly Second Life (clear articulation of purpose). Needing good technical support. Managing time for monitoring and feedback (professional development) using introspective tools (technology). Assessing - effective through reflective tools. Mature students tend to undergo greater transformative learning - ‘frame of reference’ more coherent; great role models: When circumstances permit, transformative learners move toward a frame of reference that is more inclusive, discriminating, self-reflective, and integrative of experience. (Mezirow, J., 1997, p.5)

24 References Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Byram, M. (2008). From foreign language education to education for intercultural citizenship: Essays and reflections. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Byram, M & Feng, A. (Eds.). ( 2006). Living and studying abroad: research and practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Calongne, C. M. (2008) Educational frontiers: Learning in a virtual world. EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 43, no. 5 (September/October 2008) Corder, D. & U-Mackay, A. (2011). Integration of ICT for effective learning, teaching and assessment. In M. Levy, F. Blin, C. Bradin Sislin & O. Takeuchi (Eds.). WorldCALL: International perspectives on computer-assisted language learning. UK: Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning. Corder, D. & U, A. (2010). Integrating Second Life to enhance global intercultural collaborative projects. ACM Inroads magazine (special issue),1 (3). Diehl, C. & Prins, E., (2008). Unintended outcomes in Second Life: Intercultural literacy and cultural identity in a virtual world. Language and Intercultural Communication, 8 (2), 101-118. Ehrenreich, S. (2006) The assistant experience in retrospect and its educational and professional significance in teachers’ biographies. In M. Byram & A. Feng (Eds), Living and studying abroad: Research and practice (pp. 186-209). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Jackson, J. (2006). Ethnographic pedagogy and evaluation in short-term study abroad. In M. Byram & A. Feng (Eds.). Living and studying abroad (pp. 134-156). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Kohonen, V. (2005). Experiential learning, intercultural learning and teacher development in foreign language education. In Smeds, J., Sarmavuori, K., Laakkonen, E. & de Cillia, R. (eds). Multicultural communities, multilingual practice, 123-135. Turku: Annales Universitatis Turkuensis B 285. King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2005). A developmental model of intercultural maturity. Journal of college student development, 46(6), 571–592. Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5–12. Roberts, C., Byram, M., Barro, A., Jordan, S. & Street. B. (2001). Language learners as ethnographers. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Sercu, L. (2004). Assessing intercultural competence: a framework for systematic text development in foreign language education and beyond. Intercultural Education, 15 (1), 73-89. Sercu, L. (2007). Foreign language teachers and intercultural competence. What keeps teachers from doing what they believe in? In M. Jiménez Raya & L. Sercu (Eds), Challenges in teacher development: Learner autonomy and intercultural competence (pp. 65-80). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Stickler, U. & Emke, M. (2011) LITERALIA: Towards developing intercultural maturity online. Language Learning and Technology, 15 (1), 147-168 Terantino, J. M. (2010) YouTube for Foreign Languages: You Have to See This Video. Language Learning and Technology, 15 (1), pp. 10–16. Vogt, K. (2006). Can you measure attitudinal factors in intercultural communication? Tracing the development of attitudes in e-mail projects. ReCALL, 18 (02). 153-173. DOI: 10.1017/S095834400600022X10.1017/S095834400600022X

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