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Learning from an Instructional Hierarchy Perspective Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., N.C.S.P. Illinois State University

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The ABC’s of Learning Antecedent –Instructional pace/Materials/Methods –Location, Demands, etc. Behavior –Topography –Rate/Accuracy/Level/Trend/Expectation Consequences –Delayed versus immediate –Feedback versus none/ R+/P

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The Instructional Hierarchy 4 Stages of Learning Development * Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, Adaptation Similar to other “Stage Theories” with regard to pros and cons

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Stage 1: Acquisition General Question: Acquisition General Variable: Percent Correct General Strategies: 1. Modeling 2. Demonstration 3. Prompting * Often requires a task analysis

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Modeling Presenting example of a skill e.g. Mathematics “here is a problem for you to look at”

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Demonstration Active performance of a skill e.g., Mathematics “Watch me work this problem here”

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Prompting Providing a cue to perform a target response e.g., Mathematics “Don’t forget to carry the 1”

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Example of using Demonstration Subtraction with regrouping

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38 - 19 The bottom number is bigger than the top number in the right column So we must borrow from the left column.

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38 - 19 2 Cross out the top number in the left column and write the next smallest number Above it.

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38 - 19 2 1 Now put a 1 in front of the top number in the right column.

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38 - 19 9 2 1 Now subtract starting in the right column

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38 - 19 19 2 1 Now subtract the left column

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Example of Demonstration Prompting and Modeling Telling time to the nearest minute

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What time is it?

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Write down the number that the small hand is pointing to: 11 Hint: If in between two numbers then It is always the smallest number.

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Now count by 5’s stating with the number 1 and write down the number that The big hand is on 11:45

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Sometimes big hands are also between numbers. Let’s tell time.

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Write down the number that the small hand is pointing to: 1: Hint: If in between two numbers then It is always the smallest number.

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Now count by 5’s starting with the number 1 and write down the smallest number that the big hand is in between on next to the clock 1:__ :15

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Now count each little tick mark after the smallest number and add it to the number you wrote down. 1:18 :15 3 18

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Stage 2: Fluency General Question: Accurate response rate General Variable: Behavior per minute (e.g. wrcpm) General Procedures: 1. Drill: Active repeated responses 2. Overlearning (Maintenance)

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Example of Drill Basic Addition Facts

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Flashcard Drill Procedure All possible combinations 0-12 Start timer Present first stimulus (wait time) If correct put in correct pile with feedback If incorrect put in incorrect pile with corrective feedback. Repeat procedure with incorrect pile until all cards are put into correct pile Graph Data and show student

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Stage 3: Generalization General Measurement: Generalization/Transfer General Procedures: Practice (new response with other responses). Discrimination Training: Behavior in presence of one stimulus but not another. Differentiation: reinforce responses to stimulus while slowly varying one essential aspect of the stimulus

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Example of Discrimination Training Letter Reversal b and d

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b or d? Present a single stimulus to student “b” Ask: What letter is this? Correct response = praise Incorrect response = corrective feedback 10 consecutive correct responses fade in d 10 consecutive responses stop and start over with d 10 consecutive responses fade in b Alternate between the two letters fade in others as needed Graph performance

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Differentiation Learning to count money under stimulus “How much is this? (multiple coins placed in front of child). Modify by placing heads up/tales up Modify by changing prompt (is this more or less than 30 cents?) Use in multiple environments

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Stage 4: Adaption Changing form of response when needed very efficiently What’s up versus how are you Making change Problem solving Multiple experiences multiple environments with heavy feedback

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Important Variables in understanding Instruction and Learning ABC’s and 123’s of learning and instruction

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Types of Academic Time Allocated Time: - How much time in school we have Instructional Time - How much time teacher spends providing instruction Engaged Time - How much time student spends engaged * This is the best predictor of student performance

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Question 1 Should we focus on increasing academic engaged time?

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Yes and No Yes if completing the ABC’s with correct responses No if not completing ABC’s

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ABC’s of Learning Antecedents: Instructional Directions Stimulus to respond in the presence of Pace of instruction

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ABC’s Continued Behavior: Topography: Written, verbal, typed Response rate Inter-trial interval Wait times

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ABC’s continued Consequences: Feedback (negative/positive) Immediate Contingent Change behavior

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123’s Rate of accurate responding – This is what you graph as often as possible GPA, Grade, Accuracy – This is what you graph, report, measure as general long term goal attainment.

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