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Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 4 th Edition Chapter Seven Computer-Based Training Methods P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-1
Names and Descriptions Used for Computer-Based Training Approaches Part 1 of 5 CBTComputer-based training is the term most often used in private industry or the government for training employees using computer-assisted instruction. It is a general term referring to training provided in part or whole through the use of a computer. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-2
Names and Descriptions Used for Computer-Based Training Approaches Part 2 of 5 PIProgrammed instruction (PI) is used in computer-based programs consisting of text, graphics, and perhaps multimedia enhancements that are stored in memory and connected to one another electronically. Material to be learned is grouped into chunks of closely related information. Typically, the trainees are presented with the information in the chunk and then tested on their retention of the information. If the trainees have not retained the material, they are referred back to the original information. If they retained the information, they are referred to the next chunk of information to be learned. PI may be computer- based, but is also found in printed material and interactive videos. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-3
Names and Descriptions Used for Computer-Based Training Approaches Part 3 of 5 ICAIIntelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction (ICAI) system is a CBT system that is able to provide some of the primary characteristics of a human tutor. It is a more advanced form of PI. Expert systems are used to run the tutoring aspect of the training, monitoring trainee knowledge within a programmed knowledge model and providing adaptive tutoring based on trainee responses. ITSIntelligent tutoring systems (ITS) make use of artificial intelligence to provide tutoring that is more advanced than ICAI-type tutoring. ITS “learns” the best methods of facilitating the trainee’s learning based upon the trainee’s responses. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-4
Names and Descriptions Used for Computer-Based Training Approaches Part 4 of 5 SimulationsComputer simulations provide a representation of a situation and the tasks to be performed in the situation. The representation can range from identical (e.g., word processing training) to fairly abstract (e.g., conflict resolution). Trainees perform the tasks presented to them by the computer program and the computer program monitors their performance. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-5
Names and Descriptions Used for Computer-Based Training Approaches Part 5 of 5 Virtual Reality Virtual Reality is an advanced form of computer simulation, placing the trainee in a simulated environment that is “virtually” the same as the physical environment. This simulation is accomplished by the trainee wearing special equipment such as head gear, gloves, and so on, that controls what the trainee is able to see, feel, and otherwise sense. The trainee learns by interacting with objects in the electronic environment to achieve some goal. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-6
Basic Components for Creating and Delivering CBT Learning Management System Authoring & Design Tools Delivery Systems Internet or intranet CD or DVD distribution LAN or local computer Knowledge Base (provided by content experts) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-7
Programmed Instruction for PI. Part 1 of 5 Learning Stem 1.Many people think it is impossible to learn without making a large number of errors. Because trial and error learning is time consuming and creates frustration in the learner, most people don’t like this method. After making many errors, people begin to lose their desire to learn. Questions 1.aLearning by making errors until the right response is discovered is called: 1.bWhat happens to people’s desire to learn when they must use the trial and error method? Instructions Compare your answers to these: 1.aTrial and error learning. 1.bIt decreases 1.cProgrammed Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-8
Programmed Instruction for PI. Part 2 of 5 Learning Stem 2. Many trainers feel that if learning is carefully programmed to occur in a specific manner, people can learn without making a large number of errors. Questions 1.c When leaning material is prepared so that people make few errors, it is said to have been carefully: Instructions If your answers match those above, go on to section 2. If not, reread section 1, paying attention to the italicized concepts. Then answer the questions again. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-9
Programmed Instruction for PI. Part 3 of 5 Learning Stem 2.Programmed instruction (PI) operates on the principle that if learning is programmed to occur in small steps, few errors will occur. Another principle of PI is that if trainees are given immediate feedback regarding the appropriateness of their response, they will learn more quickly and complete a greater amount of material. Questions 2.aIf the goal is to reduce the number of trainee errors before the material is learned, how should learning be programmed? 2.bTo increase the amount learned and the speed of learning, when should feedback be given? Instructions Compare your answers to those below: 2.aIn small steps. 2.bImmediately. If your answers match those above, go on to section 3. If not, reread section 2, paying attention to the italicized concepts. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-10
Programmed Instruction for PI. Part 4 of 5 Learning Stem 3.Trainee learning is enhanced if the trainee is active in the learning process. PI asks trainees to respond to questions putting the trainee in an active learning mode. Because trainees learn at different rates, they learn best if they can move through the material at their own pace. PI allows people to learn at their own pace. Finally, frequent review of material helps trainees retain the material for longer periods of time. Questions 3.aProgramming questions into the material enhances learning because it places trainees into a(n) ________ mode of learning. 3.bAt what pace should trainees move through the material? 3.cFrequent review of material results in: Instructions Compare your answers to these: 3.aActive. 3.bTheir own pace. 3.cLonger retention of material. If your answers match those above, go on to section 4. If not, re- read section 3, paying attention to the italicized concepts. Then answer the questions again. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-11
Programmed Instruction for PI. Part 5 of 5 Learning Stem 4.In summary, PI allows trainees to learn more material, quicker, and retain it longer with less frustration by: 1) programming small learning steps, resulting in fewer response errors, 2) requiring frequent active responses by the trainees, 3) providing immediate feedback to trainee responses, 4) allowing trainees to move through the material at their own pace and 5) reviewing the material. Questions 4.aWhat are five principles that PI uses to improve the ease, amount, speed, and retention of learning? 4.b PI increases the trainees’ desire to learn by reducing the number of ________ the trainee is likely to make. Instructions Compare your answers to these: 4.a1) Small learning steps, 2) frequent and active trainee response 3) immediate feedback, 4) self-paced learning and 5) frequent review 4.b Response errors. If your answers match those above, you have completed the section on PI successfully. If not, review section 4 and answer questions. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-12
Student Modeling Example Student A Never carries over Student B Carries over incorrectly Student C Trouble with simple addition problems Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-13
Points to Consider in Development of an Interactive Multimedia Program Part 1 of 3 Factor High If Low If Self-pacing The pace of the program is The only way to control the pace entirely controlled by the of the presentation is by using learner. a special key. Trainees can select menu It is not menu-driven, i.e., the options to determine the trainee can’t select a particular order of modules. lesson segment or skip segments. Trainees can skip lessons Trainees can exit the program or segments at will and only at certain points. can exit the program from any screen. Additional practice and more in-depth material are available upon request. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-14
Points to Consider in Development of an Interactive Multimedia Program Part 2 of 3 Factor High If Low If Interactivity Trainees’ responses follow The program has long, instructional segments. uninterrupted lesson segments that offer no chance for the trainee to ask or answer questions. The program tests skills and The program tests recall instead judgments, not just facts. of skills. The orderly sequence of Segments do not build on one topics is apparent to the another. learner. The learner’s answers are tagged right or wrong with no further explanation. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-15
Points to Consider in Development of an Interactive Multimedia Program Part 3 of 3 Factor High If Low If Multimedia The voices are distinct and The sound or visuals are of natural. poor quality. A voice provides program There is no direct connection instructions so that the between the audio and visual trainee doesn’t have to material (e.g., the sound is read them. limited to irrelevant music). Sound and visuals reinforce The sound is restricted to a one another. voice saying, “You are correct” or “Try again.” Visuals use color and motion The visuals don’t reinforce to reinforce the audio instructional points. message presented and illustrate the idea presented. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-16
Some Health and Safety Training Using CD-ROM Technology Part 1 of 2 Accident Investigation Prevents costly accidents from reoccurring by investigating them to find cause and implement steps to prevent them. Training time minutes. Price $695 Basics of Ergonomics Help workers understand injuries that are caused by repetitive motion and what to do to prevent them. Training time minutes. Price $695 Blood-borne Pathogens Helps workers understand the cause of Hepatitis B and HIV, the disease that causes AIDS. This course uses 30 interactions to teach workers what blood-borne pathogens are and the precautions to take to prevent being infected. Training time minutes. Price $695 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-17
Some Health and Safety Training Using CD-ROM Technology Part 2 of 2 Confined space entry This training teaches workers concepts essential for a safe work environment when in a confined space. Twenty-nine interactive activities assess the level of understanding of the key learning objectives, and let them apply what they have learned in a safe environment. Training time minutes. Price $695 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-18
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-19
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