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B i o L a b - B i o m e c h a n i c s T e a c h i n g & L e a r n i n g T o o l B o x Linear Kinematics An Introduction to Linear Kinematics

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Linear Kinematics –description of the motion of a body –the appearance of a motion with respect to time Motion described in terms of (variables): –Distance, displacement, length (e.g. stride, stroke) –Time, cadence (e.g. stride frequency, stroke frequency) –Speed, velocity –Acceleration Single point models –e.g. Centre of mass (CM) during running/jumping Multi-segment models –e.g. Co-ordination of body segments during running/jumping Kinematic Analysis

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Distance & Displacement Distance: –Length of path which a body covers during motion –Units: metre (m), centimeter (cm), kilometer (km) Displacement: –The change in position of a body during motion –Units: metre (m), centimeter (cm), kilometer (km) Distance is a scalar, and displacement is a vector variable

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Speed and Velocity Speed (scalar) –Length of path (distance) divided by change in time (∆t) Average velocity (vector) –Change in position (∆p) divided by change in time (∆t) –Displacement (d) divided by change in time (∆t) –Vector equivalent of linear speed If displacement = 50 m If t = 5 s v = 50 / 5 = 10 m·s -1

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Velocity Units of velocity –m/s or m·s -1 Velocity is a vector –Magnitude and direction calculated using Pythagoras and trigonometry –The velocity of a swimmer in a river is the vector sum of the velocities of swimmer and current. Current velocity Swimmer’s velocity Resultant velocity

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Velocity For human gait, speed is the product of stride length and stride velocity. Adults walk faster using longer stride lengths and faster stride frequency. Stride length in children has great variability.

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Velocity Runners traveling at a slower pace tend to increase velocity primarily by stride ____? At faster running speeds, runners rely more on increasing stride ____? Most runners tend to choose a combination of stride length and stride frequency that minimizes physiological cost. Best sprinters distinguished by high stride ___ & short ground contact time.

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Velocity Pace: rate of movement, or established rate of locomotion. Pace =_time_ distance –Men’s world record marathon pace = 4:37 min/mile (2:03.38) –Women’s world record marathon pace = 5:30 min/mile Position (m) Ben Johnson Elapsed time Johnson Pace Carl Lewis Interval time Lewis Pace 000 101.83 s.183 s/m1.89.189 m/s 202.87 s.104 s/m2.96.107 m/s 303.80 s.093 s/m3.90 s.094 m/s 404.66 s.086 s/m4.79 s.089 m/s 505.50 s.084 s/m5.65 s.086 m/s 606.33 s.083 s/m6.48 s.083 m/s 707.17 s.084 s/m7.33 s.085 m/s 808.02 s.085 s/m8.18 s.085 m/s 908.89 s.087 s/m9.04 s.086 m/s 1009.79 s.090 s/m9.92 s.088 m/s Men’s 100-m Dash 1988 Olympic Games

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Velocity Average velocity –Average velocity not necessarily equal to instantaneous velocity Instantaneous velocity –Occurring at one instant in time –Like an automobile speedometer Winner of the Men's 100 m at the 2004 Athens Olympics in 9.85 s Average velocity = 100 / 9.85 = 10.15 m·s -1 2004 Olympic Men's 100 m

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Kinematic analysis of 100 m sprint

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Velocity during 100 m Average velocity 0-10 m v = d / ∆t = 10 / 2.2 = 4.5 m·s -1 10-20 m = 10 / 1.2 = 8.3 m·s -1 20-30 m = 10 / 0.8 = 12.5 m·s -1 30-40 m = 10 / 0.7 = 14.3 m·s -1 40-50 m = 10 / 0.8 = 12.5 m·s -1 50-60 m = 10 / 0.8 = 12.5 m·s -1 60-70 m = 10 / 0.7 = 14.3 m·s -1 70-80 m = 10 / 0.8 = 12.5 m·s -1 80-90 m = 10 / 0.9 = 11.1 m·s -1 90-100 m = 10 / 0.9 = 11.1 m·s -1

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Average Acceleration Change in velocity (∆v) divided by change in time (∆t) Units –m/s/s or m/s 2 or m·s -2 Vector –As with displacement & velocity, acceleration can be resolved into components using trigonometry & Pythagorean theorem V 1 = 4.5 m·s -1 V 2 = 8.3 m·s -1 ∆t = 1.2 s a = (8.3 - 4.5) / 1.2 = 3.2 m·s -2

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Acceleration during 100 m Acceleration at start of race a = (v 2 - v 1 ) / ∆t = (8.3 - 4.5) / 1.2 Positive Acceleration = 3.2 m·s -2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Acceleration during middle of race a = (v 2 - v 1 ) / ∆t = (12.5 - 12.5) / 0.8 Constant Velocity = 0 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Acceleration at end of race a = (v 2 - v 1 ) / ∆t = (11.1 - 14.3) / 0.9Negative Acceleration = -3.5 m·s -2

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Acceleration and Direction of Motion Complicating factor in understanding acceleration is direction of motion of object. When object moving in same direction continually, accelerate often used to indicate an increase in velocity and decelerate to indicate a decrease in velocity. If object changes direction, one direction is positive, the opposite direction is negative.

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Acceleration Player running in negative direction increases negative velocity results in negative acceleration. Player begins to decrease velocity in negative direction has positive acceleration. Positive and negative accelerations can occur without changing directions. Motion in a negative direction Increasing velocity Decreasing velocity Negative acceleration Positive acceleration Motion in a positive direction Increasing velocity Decreasing velocity Negative acceleration Positive acceleration

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Summary Variables used to describe motion are either: –Scalar (magnitude only: e.g. time, distance and speed) –Vector (magnitude and direction: e.g. displacement, velocity and acceleration) Displacement is the change in position of a body Average velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time Average acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the change in time

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Enoka, R.M. (2002). Neuromechanics of Human Movement (3rd edition). Champaign, IL.: Human Kinetics. Pages 3-10 & 22-27. Grimshaw, P., Lees, A., Fowler, N. & Burden, A. (2006). Sport and Exercise Biomechanics. New York: Taylor & Francis. Pages 11-21. Hamill, J. & Knutzen, K.M. (2003). Biomechanical Basis of Human Movement (2nd edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Pages 271-289. McGinnis, P.M. (2005). Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise (2nd edition). Champaign, IL.: Human Kinetics. Pages 47-62. Recommended Reading

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