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Madigan Home Tour and Solar Energy Seminar By David W. Madigan, P.E.

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Presentation on theme: "Madigan Home Tour and Solar Energy Seminar By David W. Madigan, P.E."— Presentation transcript:

1 Madigan Home Tour and Solar Energy Seminar By David W. Madigan, P.E.

2 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Why Renewable Energy?  USA uses an Inordinately High Share of Energy on a Per Capita Basis USA uses 40% of World-wide Energy Flows and Generates 33% of CO2 and Associated Pollutants World-wideUSA uses 40% of World-wide Energy Flows and Generates 33% of CO2 and Associated Pollutants World-wide Buildings use 1/3 of Total US Energy and 2/3 of ElectricityBuildings use 1/3 of Total US Energy and 2/3 of Electricity World-wide Fossil Fuel Reserves are Being Depleted at an Alarmingly Increasing RateWorld-wide Fossil Fuel Reserves are Being Depleted at an Alarmingly Increasing Rate

3 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S

4 Conservation vs. Generation  Conservation preferable over Renewable energy Usually Better EconomicsUsually Better Economics Even Renewable Energy has Environmental ConsequencesEven Renewable Energy has Environmental Consequences Conservation Measures Result in Reduction of Usage and Peak LoadsConservation Measures Result in Reduction of Usage and Peak Loads  Conservation and Renewable Energy Complement One Another Renewable Energy Capital IntensiveRenewable Energy Capital Intensive Conservation Reduces Capital Investment by Limiting Peak LoadsConservation Reduces Capital Investment by Limiting Peak Loads  Implement Renewable Energy Systems after Making Maximum use of Conservation Options – Sustainable Design Process

5 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Energy  Solar Energy is the Basis for Essentially all Renewable Energy Sources  Solar Energy Incident On Earth Annually: 160 Times the World’s Proven Resources of Fossil Fuels160 Times the World’s Proven Resources of Fossil Fuels 15,000 Times the World’s Annual Use of Energy15,000 Times the World’s Annual Use of Energy  Solar Energy can be used Directly: (solar thermal, photovoltaics, daylighting) or Indirectly: (wind, geothermal, biomass)

6 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S

7 Solar Energy  Sun is a High Temperature “Radiator” (6000°C)  Earth is a Low Temperature “Receiver”  Solar Energy is Received as Short Wavelength Radiation 30% Reflected by Atmosphere30% Reflected by Atmosphere 70% Re-radiated As Long Wavelength Radiation70% Re-radiated As Long Wavelength Radiation  Atmosphere Acts like Glass on a Solar Collector Basics

8 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Energy  Incident Solar Energy Varies Based on: Length of Travel Through AtmosphereLength of Travel Through Atmosphere  Latitude, Seasons Atmospheric ClarityAtmospheric Clarity  Cloud Cover, Pollution Time of DayTime of Day Angle and Orientation of Collector SurfaceAngle and Orientation of Collector Surface  Sun Angle Highest in Summer (73.5°) and Lowest in Winter (26.6°) (at 12:00 pm, 40° lat.) Basics

9 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Seasonal Solar Angles Connecticut:Highest Summer 73º Lowest Winder 27º

10 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Energy  Direct & Diffuse Radiation Beam Radiation from Sun Scattered when Penetrating AtmosphereBeam Radiation from Sun Scattered when Penetrating Atmosphere Flat Plate Collectors, Passive Solar & Daylighting Makes Use of Both Direct & Diffuse RadiationFlat Plate Collectors, Passive Solar & Daylighting Makes Use of Both Direct & Diffuse Radiation Concentrating Collectors use Primarily Beam RadiationConcentrating Collectors use Primarily Beam Radiation Ratio of Beam to Diffuse Varies by Local ClimateRatio of Beam to Diffuse Varies by Local Climate  Cloudier Climates ~ 50% beam / 50% diffuse  Clear Climates ~ 80% beam / 20% diffuse Basics

11 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Thermal Energy  Active Solar Heating  Passive Solar Heating  Solar Thermal Engines  Daylighting

12 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Thermal Collectors  Dark Surface with High Absorptance Gathers Full Spectrum of Solar Radiation  Heat is Drawn Away by Working Fluid – Usually Glycol / Water  Glass and/or Selective Surface Used to Minimize Conduction and Re-radiation Losses  Efficiency Dependant on Collector Design and Working Temperature Lower Temperature = Higher EfficiencyLower Temperature = Higher Efficiency

13 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Collector Types

14 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Collector Efficiency Fluid Temperature Above Ambient Efficiency (%)

15 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Active Solar Thermal Systems  Domestic Hot Water Heating  Pool Heating  Space Heating  Make-up Air Preheat  Thermal Based Cooling

16 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Domestic Hot Water  Low Temperature Operation Allows High Collector Efficiency, Year Round Loads  Storage Requirements Dependent on Use Profile  Back-up Heating Required – Inexpensive  Typical Residential System: SF Collector, gal. Storage  Consider Freeze Protection and Over Collection Issues Application Considerations

17 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Pool Heating  Highest Operating Efficiency  Applicable for Indoor or Outdoor Pools  Consistent Year Round Loads for Indoor Pools  Outdoor Pools – Inexpensive Unglazed Collectors  Indoor Pools – Need Higher Efficiency Collectors for Winter Operation  No Heat Exchanger Required for Outdoor Pools Application Considerations

18 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Space Heating  Lowest Solar Resource and Collector Efficiency at Time of Highest Loads – Daily & Annually  Need High Efficiency Collectors  Good Application with Low Temp Radiant Heating  Couple with Passive Solar  Storage Required to Offset Nighttime Loads  High Efficiency Envelope Design Minimizes Heat Loads / System Sizing  Can be Coupled with Summer Thermal Air Conditioning Application Considerations

19 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Thermal Based Cooling  Peak Loads Coincide with Maximum Solar Resource – Annually and Daily  Provides Fairly Consistent Year Round Load when Coupled with Space Heating  Requires High Temperature Solar System Operation  Thermal Based Cooling Equipment – Expensive and Inefficient (COP ~.6 – 1.0)  PV / GSHP may be Preferable Application Considerations

20 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R SDaylighting  Solar Resource Used to Offset Highest Cost Electricity  Technology Well Developed  Allows Reduced Cooling Loads Also  Can Help to Downsize HVAC Systems  Glazing Optimization by Exposure  Need to Control Excess Solar Heat Gain  Best Implemented as Part of an Integrated Design Process  Can Be Highly Cost Effective  Improves Indoor Environment  Can Combine with PV Technology & Passive Solar Design Overview

21 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Photovoltaic (Solar Energy) Systems Electricity Production Directly From SunlightElectricity Production Directly From Sunlight Utilizes Photon Energy in Sunlight to Promote Electrical Current FlowUtilizes Photon Energy in Sunlight to Promote Electrical Current Flow Relies on Semi-Conductor Effects in Specialized MaterialsRelies on Semi-Conductor Effects in Specialized Materials DC Power Output from PanelsDC Power Output from Panels Extensive Development of New Technologies & Products UnderwayExtensive Development of New Technologies & Products Underway

22 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Types of PV Modules Thin Film on flexible substrate Thin Film on glass substrate Mono-crystallineMono-crystalline Poly-crystalline

23 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Crystalline vs. Thin Films Crystalline PV Modules  Output: watts/SF  Efficiency: 12% - 18%  Color: blue / black  Module sizes: 5 watts – 300 watts  Reduced efficiency under hot conditions  Longer track record in field Thin Film Modules  Output: 5-8 watts/SF  Efficiency: 6% - 8%  Color: gray to black, deep blue  Module sizes: 5 watts – 120 watts  Less efficiency drop under hot conditions  More efficient in low light conditions

24 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar: Big Company Players  Shell Oil – Solar subsidiary  Kyocera  Sharp  Sanyo Electric  BP Oil – Solar subsidiary  AstroPower (Division of GE Power)  Sunpower Lots of New Players & Development Underway

25 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S PV System Elements PV PanelsPV Panels Mounting SystemMounting System Electrical InterconnectionElectrical Interconnection Voltage Regulation Device for Direct DC Load ApplicationVoltage Regulation Device for Direct DC Load Application DC-to-AC Inverter for Traditional AC ApplicationsDC-to-AC Inverter for Traditional AC Applications Energy Storage System for Off-Grid and/or Emergency Back-up ApplicationsEnergy Storage System for Off-Grid and/or Emergency Back-up Applications Additional Grid Interface | Components if Required by Local UtilityAdditional Grid Interface | Components if Required by Local Utility

26 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S PV Components Grid-tied System

27 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S

28 Roof Mounted PV Systems  2 kW Array  (16)120-watt Modules  Low-profile Mounting  Mounts Over Existing Roof  “Raised” to Allow Air Movement

29 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S BIPV Roofing Products  Installs Over Wood Batten System  Replaces Conventional Roofing  12 Watt Modules  Venting Required for Air Movement Atlantis Sunslates

30 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S BIPV Roofing Products  Laminates on Standard Standing  120 Watts per Panel (19’ length)  6-8 Watts per SF Uni-Solar Standing Seam Metal Roof

31 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S BIPV Roofing Products  ECD Thin Film Laminate  2 kW Output  Grid Connect U-I System with Net Metering Uni-Solar Standing Seam Metal Roof

32 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Ground Mounted – Fixed Array

33 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S PV Energy Concepts  Performance Factor Considerations Perpendicular Solar Incidence will Yield Highest OutputPerpendicular Solar Incidence will Yield Highest Output Solar Array Tilt Selection can Optimize Seasonal PerformanceSolar Array Tilt Selection can Optimize Seasonal Performance Tilt 20º - 50º may Optimize Year Round PerformanceTilt 20º - 50º may Optimize Year Round Performance Colder Ambient Temperatures will Increase EfficiencyColder Ambient Temperatures will Increase Efficiency Shading Effects of Collector Arrangements and Adjacent Buildings will Reduce OutputShading Effects of Collector Arrangements and Adjacent Buildings will Reduce Output Tree Shading Effects may not be Excessive if Deciduous Trees are Involved, Analysis Required.Tree Shading Effects may not be Excessive if Deciduous Trees are Involved, Analysis Required.

34 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S PV Energy Concepts  Site Performance Estimates Overall Efficiency Performance Kwh/meter 2 /yr Belmar, CO 15.3%220 Shreveport, LA 14.9%195 Atlanta, GA 15.0%203 Syracuse, NY 15.5%170

35 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S PV Energy Concepts  System Cost Breakdown PV Panels ~ %PV Panels ~ % Inverter & Electrical Components ~ %Inverter & Electrical Components ~ % Labor ~ %Labor ~ %  Typical System Cost$ / w4 kW Total Installed Cost$8-10/w$36,000Total Installed Cost$8-10/w$36,000 CCEF Rebate$5.50/w$20,000CCEF Rebate$5.50/w$20,000 Tax Refund$.50/w$2,000Tax Refund$.50/w$2,000 Net Cost to Homeowner$3-4/w$14,000Net Cost to Homeowner$3-4/w$14,000

36 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Thermal / PV Comparison Solar DHWPV Panel Efficiency60 – 80 %12 – 18 % Panel Cost$15 – 25 /s.f.$40 – 60 / s.f. Peak Output50 – 60 w/ s.f.9 – 15 w/ s.f. System Cost$80 – 120 / s.f.$90 – 130 / s.f. $1.50 – 2.50 / w$8 – 10 / w Annual Output (CT)65 – 85 kwh/s.f./yr14 – 18 kwh/s.f./yr Rebate$2000$5 / w + $2000 Offset Energy Cost ($3.00/gal.) / ($0.18 kwh)$0.18 /kwh Annual Savings$6.50/s.f. / $13.50/s.f.$3.00/ s.f. Simple Payback15 yrs./ 8 yrs.15 yrs. ROI10% /20%10%

37 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S Solar Power Information  American Solar Energy Society, ases.org  Interstate Renewable Energy Council, irecusa.org  Million Solar Roofs, millionsolarroofs.com  National Renewable Energy Laboratory, nrel.gov  Solar Electric Power Association, solarelectricpower.org  Solar Energy Industry Association, seia.org  Institute for Sustainable Power, ispq.org  US Dept. of Energy Office of Renewable Energy, eren.doe.gov

38 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  Passive Solar  Thermal Mass  Super Insulation  Natural / Mechanical Ventilation  Solar Thermal Domestic Hot Water / Hot Tub  Photovoltaic System  Wood Heating System  Bio-diesel Fuel Storage Madigan Home Energy Features Overview

39 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  Orientation: 20º East of South  Dimensions: 60’x24’, Long E/W Axis  Extensive South Glazing  Limited N, E, W Glazing  Garage on North  Vertical Glazing Optimizes Winter / Summer Performance  Sunroom Direct Charging of Mass  Arbor for Summer Shading Madigan Home Passive Solar Features

40 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  Stress Skin Walls  4” Polyurethane - R30  Roof and Attic Attic: 18” Fiberglass – R60Attic: 18” Fiberglass – R60 Roof: 12” Fiberglass + 1 ½” ISO – R45Roof: 12” Fiberglass + 1 ½” ISO – R45  Foundation / Basement Floor: 1” Polystyrene – R6Floor: 1” Polystyrene – R6 Foundation below grade: 2” Polystyrene – R12Foundation below grade: 2” Polystyrene – R12 Foundation above grade: 3” Polystyrene – R18Foundation above grade: 3” Polystyrene – R18  Windows South Side: Double Glazed, Low-e, Argon – R3.5South Side: Double Glazed, Low-e, Argon – R3.5 Other Sides: Triple Glazed, Low-e, Argon – R5Other Sides: Triple Glazed, Low-e, Argon – R5 Madigan Home Energy Conservation Features

41 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  No Air Conditioning  Extensive Operable Window Area  Chimney Effect through Third Floor  Arbor & Overhangs for Shading  Thermal Mass Fly Wheel Effect  Nighttime Cooling via Whole House Fan  Ceiling Fans in Kitchen and Bedrooms Madigan Home Natural / Mechanical Ventilation

42 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  Exterior Insulation of Basement Walls  Brick Walls Around Sunspace  Concrete / Slate Floor in Sunspace  Gravel Below Sunroom Floor  Massive Interior Fireplace Madigan Home Thermal Mass

43 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  100 MBH Oil Fired Boiler (B-20 used)  Boiler Feeds Fan Coil Units, DHW Tank and Hot Tub  Vermont Castings Wood Stove  Recirculation from Woodstove or Solar Greenhouse  Air to Air Heat Exchanger  Dryer Recirculation into 2 nd Floor Area  Oil use – About 300 gal/yr for Heating and DHW  2 to 3 Cords of Wood Madigan Home Oil / Wood Heating System

44 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  2/3 4’x10’ AET Collectors  120 Gallon Insulated Storage Tank  Glycol / Drainback System  Drainback Tank in Attic  95% DHW Load in Spring / Summer / Fall  Preheats DHW in Winter  Heats Hot Tub Also Madigan Home Solar Thermal Domestic Hot Water / Hot Tub

45 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  5.5 kW Peak DC Output (STC)  28 Sanyo BA-195 Collectors  High Collector Efficiency (17%)  Highest PTC Rating  Fronius IG-5100 Inverter  Anticipated Output: kwh/yr  $25,000 CCEF Rebate Madigan Home Photovoltaic System

46 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S

47  330 Gallon Tank w/ Electric Pump  B-100 Used April through November  B-20 Used in Winter  Supplies a 4 person “Co-op” Madigan Home Bio-Diesel Fuel Storage

48 VAN Z ELM E N G I N E E R S  Install Third Solar Thermal Collector  Moveable Insulation on Larger Windows  Solar Air Heater on Living Room Wall  Reduce Infiltration  LED Lighting  Condensing Oil Boiler  Replace Refrigerator Madigan Home Future Improvements


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