3Baseplate Compass There are several grades and types of compasses. A good baseplate compass willhave a:Rotating, fluid-filled housingBaseplateCompass needleNorth alignment needleDirection-of-travel arrow
18Steps Traveled in 100 FeetOnce an average pace is established, it is possible to determine how many steps it will take to travel a given distance.In this example, 40 steps = 1 pace
19Steps Traveled in 100 FeetDistance from point A to point B = (160) stepsPace = (40) stepsDivide (160) distance from A to B by (40) steps160 ÷ 40 = 4Multiply 4 by (100) distance used to find pace4 x 100 = 400Distance to target is 400 feet
20Steps Traveled in 100 Feet Calculate the number steps to travel a distance of 185 feet.Divide (185) distance by 100185 ÷ 100 = 1.85Remember: 40 steps = 1 paceMultiply 40 by 1.851.85 x 40 = 74It will take 74 steps to travel 185 feet.
21Pacing (Obstacles)It is necessary to determine pace on uneven terrain, through ditches, grasses, trees, brush of various heights, and other obstacles.
22Pacing Beginners should: Use a measuring tape to accurately measure a 100-foot distance.Practice on clean, level ground, using a natural walking gait.Maintain a constant, reliable pace, regardless of the obstacles.
24Compass UseThe Earth’s North and South poles act like a huge magnet. One pole is positive and one pole is negative.Because magnetic and true North are not the same, corrections are made in surveying to compensate for this difference. The difference is referred to as magnetic declination.
25Compass UseThe compass needle, which floats in the fluid-filled chamber, is magnetized.Regardless of the compass position, the red needle is drawn to the Magnetic North Pole.
26Compass UseThe circular rotating housing enclosing the needle is marked in degrees in increments from 0° to 360°.Degrees are also referred to as the azimuth or bearing.Housing
27Compass UseDirectional letters N, S, E, and W, are identified on the housing.North South East West
28Compass UseExample: To find the direction-of-travel based on a compass reading of 210 feet at 320° from a specific location:
29Reading 210 feet at 320°Rotate the housing on the compass until the 320° mark lines up with the direction-of-travel arrow.Direction-of-travel arrow320°
30Reading 210 feet at 320°Rotate the entire compass until the compass needle lines up in the North alignment position.Direction-of-travel arrowNeedle in the North Alignment Position
31Reading 210 feet at 320°Holding the compass at eye level, use the direction-of-travel arrow to identify a distant landmark.Walk in a straight line as indicated by the direction-of-travel arrow for a distance of 210 feet to the recorded location.
33Compass UseNote: All magnetic objects, such as belts, watches, keys, and other metal objects can interfere with the compass reading.Hold compass away form metal objects when taking a reading.
34Compass UseAerial maps are available through the Natural Resource Conservation Service or the Soil and Water Conservation District.Maps should be read with a compass on a flat, horizontal surface, away from metal objects.Readings may be taken from maps based on specific location and the direction to be traveled.
35Compass UseThe ability to use a compass effectively is an essential skill for wildlife managers, biologists, and other scientists who work outdoors. It is also a beneficial tool for the outdoor enthusiast.
36AcknowledgementsDr. Joe Dettling, Associate Professor, Instructional Materials Service, Texas A&M University, researched and developed the information used in this PowerPoint Presentation.Jerry Dornak, Agricultural Science & Technology Instructor, Goliad High School, Goliad, Texas and Dr. Terry Blankenship, Wildlife Biologist, Welder Wildlife Foundation, Sinton, Texas, reviewed material used this PowerPoint.Christine Stetter, Artist, Instructional Materials Service, Texas A&M University, developed and illustrated this PowerPoint Presentation.Vickie Marriott, Office Associate, Instructional Materials Service, Texas A&M University, edited the material in this PowerPoint Presentation.