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The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Jacob R. Lorch, Atul Adya, Bill Bolosky, Ronnie Chaiken, John Douceur, Jon Howell Microsoft Research.

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Presentation on theme: "The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Jacob R. Lorch, Atul Adya, Bill Bolosky, Ronnie Chaiken, John Douceur, Jon Howell Microsoft Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Jacob R. Lorch, Atul Adya, Bill Bolosky, Ronnie Chaiken, John Douceur, Jon Howell Microsoft Research First EuroSys Conference 19 April 2006

2 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Paxos Replicated B CA services statefulReplicated stateful services Problem: Machine failure leads to unavailability –Solution: Replicate the service for fault tolerance Problem: Replica state can become inconsistent –Solution: Use replicated state machine approach

3 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Migrating replicated services B CA D E Migration: Changing the configuration – the set of machines running replicas Uses of migration –Replace failed machines for long-term fault tolerance –Load balancing –Increasing or decreasing number of replicas

4 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Can remove non-failed machines –Enables autonomic migration, i.e., migration without human involvement –Enables load balancing Can do concurrent request processing Can perform arbitrary migrations, even ones replacing entire configuration Completely described in our paper Limitations of current approaches Cannot remove non-failed machines without creating window of vulnerability –Can only remove known-failed machines –Cannot use migration for load balancing Cannot process requests in parallel Limitations of current approaches addressed by SMART

5 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Outline Introduction Background on Paxos Limitations of existing approaches SMART: Service Migration And Replication Technique –Configuration-specific replicas –Shared execution modules Implementation and evaluation Conclusions

6 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Background on Paxos

7 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Paxos protocol Background: Paxos overview Goal: Every service replica runs the same sequence of requests –Deterministic service ensures state changes and replies are consistent Approach: Paxos assigns requests to virtual “slots” –No two replicas assign different requests to same slot –Each replica executes requests in slot order BAC … slots: requests: ……

8 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Background: Paxos protocol One replica is the leader Clients send requests to the leader Leader proposes a request by sending PROPOSE message to all replicas Each replica logs it and sends a LOGGED message to the leader When leader receives LOGGED messages from a majority, it decides it and sends a DECIDED message B A CZ client server replicas Req LOGGED PROPOSE DECIDED

9 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Background: Paxos leader change If leader fails, another replica “elects” itself New leader must poll replicas and hear replies from a majority –Ensures it learns enough about previous leaders’ actions to avoid conflicting proposals A B C Poll Reply

10 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Background: Paxos migration Service state includes current configuration –Request that changes that part of the state migrates the service Configuration after request n responsible for requests n+α and beyond A B C 79 Service state A, B, D A, B, C 80 α D 85

11 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Rationale for α With α=1, slot n can change the configuration responsible for slot n+1 Leader can’t propose slot n+1 until n is decided –Doesn’t know who to make proposal to, let alone whether it can make proposal at all Prevents pipelining of requests –Request may wait a network round trip and a disk write B A CZ Req PROPOSE LOGGED

12 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Limitations of existing approaches

13 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services No request pipelining Leader change is complicated –How to ensure that new leader knows the right configuration to poll? –How to handle some outstanding proposals being from one configuration and some from another? –Other problems To avoid this complexity, current approaches use α=1 But, this prevents request pipelining

14 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Window of vulnerability Removing a machine creates window of vulnerability –Effectively, it induces a failure of the removed replica –Consequently, service can become permanently unavailable even if less than half the machines fail Considered acceptable since machines only removed when known to a human to have permanently failed Not suitable for autonomic migration using imperfect failure detectors, or for load balancing B A CD DECIDEDPROPOSE DECIDEDLOGGED Poll

15 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services SMART

16 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Configuration-specific replicas Each configuration has its own set of replicas and its own separate instance of Paxos Simplifies leader change so we can pipeline requests –Election always happens in a static configuration No window of vulnerability because a replica can remain alive until next configuration is established A Replica 1B B Replica 2AReplica 2B Replica 1C CD Replica 2D Replica 1A

17 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services SMART migration protocol After creating new configuration, send JOIN msgs After executing request n+α-1, send FINISHED msgs –Tells new replicas where they can get starting state –Makes up for possibly lost JOIN messages When a majority of successor configuration have their starting state, replica kills itself If a machine misses this phase, it can still join later A Replica 1B B Replica 2AReplica 2B Replica 1C CD Replica 2D Replica 1A JOIN FINISHED READY PREPARE JOIN-REQ JOIN

18 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Agreement 1A Agreement 2A Agreement 1B Agreement 2B Agreement 1C Agreement 2D Shared execution modules Configuration-specific replicas have a downside –One copy of service state for each replica –Need to copy state to new replicas Solution: Shared execution modules –Divide replica into agreement and execution modules –One execution module for all replicas on machine Replica 1A A Replica 1B B Replica 2AReplica 2B Replica 1C CD Replica 2D Execution 1A Execution 2A Execution 1B Execution 2B Execution 1C Execution 2D Execution

19 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Implementation and evaluation SMART implemented in a replicated state machine library, LibSMART –Lets you build a service as if it were single-machine, then turns it into a replicated, migratable service Farsite distributed file system service ported to LibSMART –Straightforward because LibSMART uses BFT interface Experimental results using simple key/value service –Pipelining reduces average client latency by 14% –Migration happens quickly, so clients only see a bit of extra latency, less than 30 ms

20 The SMART Way to Migrate Replicated Stateful Services Conclusions Migration is useful for replicated services –Long-term fault tolerance, load balancing Current approaches to migration have limitations SMART removes these limitations by using configuration-specific replicas –Can remove live machines, enabling autonomic migration and load balancing –Can overlap processing of concurrent requests SMART is practical –Implementation supports large, complex file system service


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