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The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Cecchini M., Colantoni A., Monarca D., Bedini R., Pagano M., Di Giacinto.

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Presentation on theme: "The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Cecchini M., Colantoni A., Monarca D., Bedini R., Pagano M., Di Giacinto."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Cecchini M., Colantoni A., Monarca D., Bedini R., Pagano M., Di Giacinto S., Fedrizzi M., Menghini G.

2 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Introduction In Italy the fatal accidents at work in industry and services have marked a significant drop in the past 10 years. In Italy the fatal accidents at work in industry and services have marked a significant drop in the past 10 years. The agricultural sector has recorded increases in fatal accidents. The agricultural sector has recorded increases in fatal accidents. The highest number of fatal accidents in agriculture is due to the tractor rollover (av. 130 deaths/year). The highest number of fatal accidents in agriculture is due to the tractor rollover (av. 130 deaths/year).

3 Introduction The system to reduce the consequences of the overturning of agricultural tractors is made up of passive protection devices. The system to reduce the consequences of the overturning of agricultural tractors is made up of passive protection devices. ROPS (Roll Over Protective Structure), with a restraint system (seat belt) creates and guarantees, around the operator, a “safety volume”. ROPS (Roll Over Protective Structure), with a restraint system (seat belt) creates and guarantees, around the operator, a “safety volume”. The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Italy: 1.7 millions of old tractors to be adapted with safety frame Italy: 1.7 millions of old tractors to be adapted with safety frame

4 In many tractors protection devices are foldable in order to facilitate the storage or maintenance. In many tractors protection devices are foldable in order to facilitate the storage or maintenance. The possibility of lowering the ROPS promotes improper use while working under the canopy of trees, because of their contact with the branches of the trees or the support structures for the breeding of specific crops ("tendone" system). The possibility of lowering the ROPS promotes improper use while working under the canopy of trees, because of their contact with the branches of the trees or the support structures for the breeding of specific crops ("tendone" system). Introduction The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

5 Introduction It is necessary to study the most efficient systems, able to protect the operator at all times. It is necessary to study the most efficient systems, able to protect the operator at all times. The aim of this work is to identify the difficulties of the use of ROPS in working under canopy, and to propose and test effective solutions. The aim of this work is to identify the difficulties of the use of ROPS in working under canopy, and to propose and test effective solutions.

6 Materials and Methods The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Computer simulation Computer simulation Field test Field test

7 Computer simulation The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Defining the transitability 1. Identification of characteristic orchards 2. Identification of pairs of plants to be photographed 3. Individuation of the crown contour (polyline) 4. Superposition of N polylines 5. Interpolation: characteristic curves of the orchards 6. Overlap with the shape of the tractors

8 Computer simulation: Identification of orchards The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Some farms with the following crops have been selected: hazel, olive, kiwi and vine (the last two grown in tendone system). Some farms with the following crops have been selected: hazel, olive, kiwi and vine (the last two grown in tendone system). The choice of these crops is linked to the difficulty of working with tractors under canopy. The choice of these crops is linked to the difficulty of working with tractors under canopy. In the selection of the sample farms the areas with the highest incidence of production for each crop, at the regional level, have been identified. In the selection of the sample farms the areas with the highest incidence of production for each crop, at the regional level, have been identified.

9 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Computer simulation: Identification of plants Sampling method: Sampling method: a) olive and hazel groves; b) vineyard and actinidia groves.

10 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Computer simulation: Identification of plants Canon EOS 1000 D with EF-S mm 1,30 m

11 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Computer simulation: The crown contour 3 fixed points on each image was considered necessary to correct the photos by geometric aberration errors. 3 fixed points on each image was considered necessary to correct the photos by geometric aberration errors. The image correction through points spaced according to fixed distance, enables the application of software Autodesk® AutoCAD® Map 3D to obtain images perfectly in line with the plan and overlapping. The image correction through points spaced according to fixed distance, enables the application of software Autodesk® AutoCAD® Map 3D to obtain images perfectly in line with the plan and overlapping.

12 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Computer simulation: Superposition and interpolation

13 The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Computer simulation: Overlap with shape of the tractor

14 Field test New protective structures against rollover effects have been developed: CROPS (Compact Roll Over Protective Structure) (NON FOLDABLE). New protective structures against rollover effects have been developed: CROPS (Compact Roll Over Protective Structure) (NON FOLDABLE). The efficiency of the new compact rollover protective structures, with regard to the transitability in orchards, was observed during the work simulation under canopy. The efficiency of the new compact rollover protective structures, with regard to the transitability in orchards, was observed during the work simulation under canopy. The CROPS designed by INAIL comply with the standard ANSI/ASAE S478:1995. The clearance zone defined by this standard, with respect to OECD code 7, is characterized that the height in correspondence of SIP is 50 mm lower The CROPS designed by INAIL comply with the standard ANSI/ASAE S478:1995. The clearance zone defined by this standard, with respect to OECD code 7, is characterized that the height in correspondence of SIP is 50 mm lower The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

15 Field test For field tests the following tractors equipped with CROPS have been used: For field tests the following tractors equipped with CROPS have been used: New Holland 4040 T, equipped with open CROPS designed and built by INAIL; New Holland 4040 T, equipped with open CROPS designed and built by INAIL; SAME 35 Frutteto, equipped with open CROPS, designed and built in collaboration with INAIL; SAME 35 Frutteto, equipped with open CROPS, designed and built in collaboration with INAIL; Facma Trifrut 85 HP, equipped with CROPS with roof, designed and built by Facma S.r.l. (Vitorchiano, Italy) specifically for the Trifrut. Facma Trifrut 85 HP, equipped with CROPS with roof, designed and built by Facma S.r.l. (Vitorchiano, Italy) specifically for the Trifrut. The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

16 Results Simulation of transit in hazel grove

17 Results The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Simulation of transit in vineyard

18 Results The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Simulation of transit in kiwifruit grove

19 Results The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning Simulation of transit in in olive grove

20 Results The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

21 Most of the tractors tested during the computer simulations, proved to be unfit for transit within an orchard with fixed support structure. Most of the tractors tested during the computer simulations, proved to be unfit for transit within an orchard with fixed support structure. From the simulation on computer and from field tests, we observed that the Facma Trifrut works under the canopy of trees and under fixed support structures of some cultivation. From the simulation on computer and from field tests, we observed that the Facma Trifrut works under the canopy of trees and under fixed support structures of some cultivation. Conclusion The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

22 Conclusion cont’d CROPS advantages: CROPS advantages: Better transitability in the orchard with the presence of dense foliage: the particular conformation of CROPS, especially in the case of the New Holland and Facma, allows a sliding of lower foliage without determining a damage Better transitability in the orchard with the presence of dense foliage: the particular conformation of CROPS, especially in the case of the New Holland and Facma, allows a sliding of lower foliage without determining a damage Greater chance of approaching the tractor to the trunk of the plant: the difficulty of working in the vicinity of the foliage often occur in the olive groves Greater chance of approaching the tractor to the trunk of the plant: the difficulty of working in the vicinity of the foliage often occur in the olive groves CROPS allow transit below plant canopy for both vineyards and kiwifruit canopy CROPS allow transit below plant canopy for both vineyards and kiwifruit canopy The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

23 Conclusion cont’d Field tests can give a measure of the resistance that most branches can oppose to structures of these machines. Field tests can give a measure of the resistance that most branches can oppose to structures of these machines. At the end of the in field testing phase it will be possible to develop new characteristic curves for each cultivation, taking into account the actual resistance opposed to the machines by the bigger branches. At the end of the in field testing phase it will be possible to develop new characteristic curves for each cultivation, taking into account the actual resistance opposed to the machines by the bigger branches. The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

24 Via De Lellis s.n.c Viterbo - Italy Tel , Fax , Thanks for your attention… The Use of Tractor in Orchards and the Protection of Driver in Case of Overturning

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