Presentation on theme: "Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach"— Presentation transcript:
1Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 9
2Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever Passenger pigeon hunted to extinction by 1900Commercial hunters used a "stool pigeon”Geological record shows five mass extinctionsHuman activities: hastening more extinctions?
3Figure 9.1 Lost natural capital: passenger pigeons have been extinct in the wild since 1900 because of human activities. The last known passenger pigeon died in the U.S. state of Ohio’s Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.
59-1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Premature Extinction of Species? Concept 9-1A We are degrading and destroying biodiversity in many parts of the world, and these threats are increasing.Concept 9-1B Species are becoming extinct 100 to 1,000 times faster than they were before modern humans arrived on the earth (the background rate), and by the end of this century, the extinction rate is expected to be 10,000 times the background rate.
6Human Activities Are Destroying and Degrading Biodiversity Human activity has disturbed at least half of the earth’s land surfaceFills in wetlandsConverts grasslands and forests to crop fields and urban areasDegraded aquatic biodiversity
7Extinctions Are Natural but Sometimes They Increase Sharply Background extinctionExtinction rateMass extinction: causes?Poorly understood, but involve global changes in environmental conditions.Levels of species extinctionLocal extinction, or extirpationEcological extinctionBiological extinction
8Premature extinctions due to Some Human Activities Cause Premature Extinctions; the Pace Is Speeding Up (1)Premature extinctions due toHabitat destructionOverhunting, or overexploitation
9Conservative estimates of extinction = 0.01-0.1% Some Human Activities Cause Premature Extinctions; the Pace Is Speeding Up (2)Conservative estimates of extinction = %Growth of human population will increase this loss to times (to 1%)Rates are higher where there are more endangered speciesTropical forests and coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries—sites of new species—being destroyedSpeciation crisis
10Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due to Human Activities
12Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms Endangered speciesInternational Union for the for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), or the World Conservation Union.Since 1960, published Red ListIn 2007, listed 16, 306 animals and plants that are in danger of extinction—60% higher than in 1995.Threatened species, vulnerable speciesCharacteristics of such species
13Figure 9.4Endangered natural capital. Some species that are endangered or threatened with premature extinction largely because of human activities. Almost 30,000 of the world’s species and roughly 1,300 of those in the United States are officially listed as being in danger of becoming extinct. Most biologists believe the actual number of species at risk is much larger.Grizzly bearKirkland’s warblerKnowlton cactusFlorida manateeAfricanelephantUtah prairie dogSwallowtailbutterflyHumpback chubGolden lion tamarinSiberian tigerGiant pandaBlack-footedferretWhooping craneNorthern spotted owlBlue whaleMountain gorillaFlorida pantherCalifornia condorHawksbill sea turtleBlack rhinoceros
14Figure 9.5Characteristics of species that are prone to ecological and biological extinction. Question: Which of these characteristics helped lead to the premature extinction of the passenger pigeon within a single human lifetime?Low reproductive rate (K-strategist)Blue whale, giant panda, rhinocerosCharacteristicExamplesSpecialized nicheBlue whale, giant panda, Everglades kiteNarrow distributionElephant seal, desert pupfishFeeds at high trophic levelBengal tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bearFixed migratory patternsBlue whale, whooping crane, sea turtleRareAfrican violet, some orchidsCommercially valuableSnow leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare plants and birdsLarge territoriesCalifornia condor, grizzly bear, Florida panther
15Figure 9.6 Endangered natural capital: percentage of various types of species threatened with premature extinction because of human activities (Concept 9-1A). Question: Why do you think fishes top this list? (Data from World Conservation Union, Conservation International, World Wide Fund for Nature, 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
16Science Focus: Estimating Extinction Rates Is Not Easy Three problemsHard to document due to length of timeOnly 1.8 million species identifiedLittle known about nature and ecological roles of species identifiedDocument little changes in DNASuggests species survive for 1 to 10 million years before going extinct.Use species–area relationshipOn average, 90% loss of habitat results in a 50% loss of species living in that habitat.Mathematical models
179-2 Why Should We Care about Preventing Premature Species Extinction? Concept 9-2 We should prevent the premature extinction of wild species because of the economic and ecological services they provide and because they have a right to exist regardless of their usefulness to us.“It will take 5-10 million years for natural speciation to rebuild the biodiversity we are likely to destroy during your lifetime.”
18Species Are a Vital Part of the Earth’s Natural Capital Instrumental value – usefulness to us in providing ecological and economic services.Use valueEcotourism: wildlife tourismGenetic informationLoss in diversity of crop species is cause for concern.Food crops, recreation, scientific information, lumber, paper, etc.Nonuse valueExistence valueAesthetic valueBequest valueEcological valueEnergy flow, nutrient cycling, and population control—the scientific principles of sustainability that sustain and support life on earth.
19Figure 9.7 Natural capital degradation: endangered orangutans in a tropical forest. In 1900, there were over 315,000 wild orangutans. Now there are less than 20,000 and they are disappearing at a rate of over 2,000 per year because of illegal smuggling and clearing of their forest habitat in Indonesia and Malaysia to make way for oil palm plantations. An illegally smuggled orangutan typically sells for a street price of $10,000. According to 2007 study by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), projected climate change will further devastate remaining orangutan populations in Indonesia and Malaysia. Question: How would you go about trying to set a price on the ecological value of an orangutan?
20Figure 9. 8 Natural capital: nature’s pharmacy Figure 9.8 Natural capital: nature’s pharmacy. Parts of these and a number of other plant and animal species (many of them found in tropical forests) are used to treat a variety of human ailments and diseases. Nine of the ten leading prescription drugs originally came from wild organisms. About 2,100 of the 3,000 plants identified by the National Cancer Institute as sources of cancer-fighting chemicals come from tropical forests. Despite their economic and health potential, fewer than 1% of the estimated 125,000 flowering plant species in tropical forests (and a mere 1,100 of the world’s 260,000 known plant species) have been examined for their medicinal properties. Once the active ingredients in the plants have been identified, they can usually be produced synthetically. Many of these tropical plant species are likely to become extinct before we can study them.
21Figure 9.9 Many species of wildlife, such as this endangered scarlet macaw in Brazil’s Amazon rain forest, are a source of beauty and pleasure. These and other colorful species of parrots can become endangered when they are removed from the wild and sold (sometimes illegally) as pets.
22Science Focus: Using DNA to Reduce Illegal Killing of Elephants for Their Ivory 1989 international treaty against poaching elephantsPoaching on the riseTrack area of poaching through DNA analysis of elephantsElephants damaging areas of South Africa: Should they be culled?
23Are We Ethically Obligated to Prevent Premature Extinction? Intrinsic value, or existence valueSpecies have an inherent right to exist and play their ecological roles, regardless of their usefulness to us.Edward O. Wilson: biophilia phenomenonBiophobia
24Science Focus: Why Should We Care about Bats? Vulnerable to extinctionSlow to reproduceHuman destruction of habitatsImportant ecological rolesFeed on crop-damaging nocturnal insectsPollen-eatersFruit-eatersUnwarranted fears of bats
259-3 How do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction? Concept 9-3 The greatest threats to any species are (in order) loss or degradation of its habitat, harmful invasive species, human population growth, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation.
26Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to Species: Remember HIPPCO (1) Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentationInvasive (nonnative) speciesPopulation and resource use growthPollutionClimate changeOverexploitation
27NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Figure 9.10Underlying and direct causes of depletion and premature extinction of wild species (Concept 9-3). The major direct causes of wildlife depletion and premature extinction are habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. This is followed by the deliberate or accidental introduction of harmful invasive (nonnative) species into ecosystems.NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATIONCauses of Depletion and Premature Extinction of Wild SpeciesUnderlying Causes• Population growth• Rising resource use• Undervaluing natural capital• PovertyDirect Causes• Habitat loss• Pollution• Commercial hunting and poaching• Habitat degradation and fragmentation• Climate change• Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants• Overfishing• Introduction of nonnative species• Predator and pest control
28Figure 9.11Natural capital degradation: reductions in the ranges of four wildlife species, mostly as the result of habitat loss and hunting. What will happen to these and millions of other species when the world’s human population doubles and per capita resource consumption rises sharply in the next few decades? Question: Would you support expanding these ranges even though this would reduce the land available for people to grow food and live on? Explain. (Data from International Union for the Conservation of Nature and World Wildlife Fund)
29Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to Species: Remember HIPPCO (2) Globally, habitat loss, greatest in temperate biomes, pace picking up in tropics.Endemic speciesHawaii, the extinction capital of America—63% of species at risk.Habitat islandsHabitat fragmentationThe Bali Mynah is distributed and endemic to the island of Bali, where it is the island's only surviving endemic species. This rare bird was discovered in 1910 and is one of the world's most critically endangered birds. In fact, it has been hovering immediately above extinction in the wild for several years.
30Tropical Biologist Bill Laurance, et al. Science Focus: Studying the Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Old-Growth TreesTropical Biologist Bill Laurance, et al.How large must a forest fragment be in order to prevent the loss of rare trees?
31Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (1) 70% of the worlds 10,000 birds are declining; 12% are threatened with extinction.Habitat loss and fragmentation of the birds’ breeding habitatsForests cleared for farms, lumber plantations, roads, and developmentIntentional or accidental introduction of nonnative speciesEat the birds
32One in every eight bird species (12%) is threatened with extinction One in every eight bird species (12%) is threatened with extinction. Three-fourths live in forests.NumbersLocationReason(s)75% of birds speciesSumatra’s lowland forestsLumber and palm plantations, used for biofuels115 bird speciesBrazilBurning/clearing of rainforests for farms and ranches; 93% loss of Atlantic coastal rainforest; clearing of savannah-like cerrado for soybean plantations30% of bird species, 70% of grassland speciesNorth AmericaHabitat loss and fragmentation of breeding habitat; replaced by roads and other developments.28% of speciesWorldwideIntroduction of non-native bird-eating species52 of 388 parrot speciesPet trade23 SeabirdsBycatch from commercial fishing; pollution40% of waterbirdsLoss of wetlands
33Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (2) Seabirds caught and drown in fishing equipmentMigrating birds fly into power lines, communication towers, and skyscrapersOther threatsOil spillsPesticidesHerbicidesIngestion of toxic lead shotgun pellets
34Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (3) Greatest new threat: Climate changeEnvironmental indicatorsLive in every climate and biomeRespond quickly to environmental changesEasy to trackEconomic and ecological services
35Figure 9.12 Distribution of bird species in North America and Latin America. Question: Why do you think more bird species are found in Latin America than in North America? (Data from The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund, and Environment Canada).
36Golden-cheeked warbler California gnatcatcher Figure 9.13The 10 most threatened species of U.S. songbirds. Most of these species are vulnerable because of habitat loss and fragmentation from human activities. An estimated 12% of the world’s known bird species may face premature extinction due mostly to human activities during this century. (Data from National Audubon Society)Cerulean warblerSprague’s pipitBichnell’s thrushBlack-capped vireoGolden-cheeked warblerCalifornia gnatcatcherKirtland'swarblerFlorida scrub jayHenslow's sparrowBachman's warbler
37Vultures poisoned from diclofenac in cow carcasses Science Focus: Vultures, Wild Dogs, and Rabies: Unexpected Scientific ConnectionsVultures poisoned from diclofenac in cow carcassesMore wild dogs eating the cow carcassesMore rabies spreading to people
38Some Deliberately Introduced Species Can Disrupt Ecosystems Most species introductions are beneficial.FoodShelterMedicineAesthetic enjoymentNonnative species may have no natural enemies.PredatorsCompetitorsParasitesPathogens
39Figure 9.14Some of the more than 7,100 harmful invasive (nonnative) species that have been deliberately or accidentally introduced into the United States.
41Case Study: The Kudzu Vine Imported from Japan in the 1930s to control soil erosion.“ The vine that ate the South”Could there be benefits of kudzu?
42Kudzu Taking Over an Abandoned House in Mississippi, U.S.
43Some Accidentally Introduced Species Can Also Disrupt Ecosystems Argentina fire ant: 1930sPesticide spraying in 1950s and 1960s worsened conditionsWiped out competitor ant species and made them more pesticide resistant.Burmese python
44Figure 9.16 The Argentina fire ant, introduced accidentally into Mobile, Alabama, in the 1930s from South America (green area), has spread over much of the southern United States (red area). This invader is also found in Puerto Rico, New Mexico, and California. Question: How might this accidental introduction of fire ants have been prevented? (Data from S. D. Porter, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture)
45Prevention Is the Best Way to Reduce Threats from Invasive Species Prevent them from becoming establishedLearn the characteristics of the successful invader species and the types of ecosystems that are vulnerable to invasion.Inspection of imports.Ballast water from cargo ships.Set up research programs to try to find natural ways to control them: predators, parasites, bacteria and viruses.Ground surveys and satellite observations to detect and monitor invasions to develop better models for predicting spread.
46Figure 9.17 Some general characteristics of successful invader species and ecosystems vulnerable to invading species. Question: Which, if any, of the characteristics on the right-hand side could humans influence?
47Figure 9.18 Individuals Matter: ways to prevent or slow the spread of harmful invasive species. Questions: Which two of these actions do you think are the most important? Why? Which of these actions do you plan to take?
48Other Causes of Species Extinction (1) Population growthOverconsumptionPollutionClimate change
49Other Causes of Species Extinction (2) PesticidesDDT: Banned in the U.S. in 1972BioaccumulationBiomagnification
50DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys) 25 ppmDDT in large fish (needle fish)2 ppmDDT in small fish (minnows)0.5 ppmFigure 9.19Bioaccumulation and biomagnification. DDT is a fat-soluble chemical that can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals. In a food chain or web, the accumulated DDT can be biologically magnified in the bodies of animals at each higher trophic level. The concentration of DDT in the fatty tissues of organisms was biomagnified about 10 million times in this food chain in an estuary near Long Island Sound in the U.S. state of New York. If each phytoplankton organism takes up from the water and retains one unit of DDT, a small fish eating thousands of zooplankton (which feed on the phytoplankton) will store thousands of units of DDT in its fatty tissue. Each large fish that eats 10 of the smaller fish will ingest and store tens of thousands of units, and each bird (or human) that eats several large fish will ingest hundreds of thousands of units. Dots represent DDT. Question: How does this story demonstrate the value of pollution prevention?DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppmDDT in water ppm, or 3 ppt
51Case Study: Where Have All the Honeybees Gone? Honeybees responsible for 80% of insect-pollinated plantsDying due to?PesticidesParasitesBee colony collapse syndrome
52Case Study: Polar Bears and Global Warming Environmental impact on polar bearsLess summer sea icePCBs and DDTCan adversely affect their development, behavior, and reproduction.IUCN2006 Study: Population projected to decline by %, and may be found only in zoos by end of century.2007 listed as threatened species2008 listed as threatened species under US ESA.
53Figure 9.20 Polar bear with seal prey on floating ice in Svalbard, Norway. Polar bears in the Arctic are likely to become extinct sometime during this century because global warming is melting the floating sea ice on which they hunt seals.
54Illegal Killing, Capturing, and Selling of Wild Species Threatens Biodiversity Poaching and smuggling of animals and plantsAnimal partsPetsPlants for landscaping and enjoymentWhen commercially valuable species become endangered, black market prices soar.Prevention: research and education
55Figure 9.21 White rhinoceros killed by a poacher for its horn in South Africa. Question: What would you say if you could talk to the poacher of this animal?
56The hyacinth macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, may be worth $ to an exotic bird collector, but worth $ in tourist revenues left in the wild.
57Individuals Matter: Jane Goodall Primatologist and anthropologist45 years understanding and protecting chimpanzeesChimps have tool-making skills
58Rising Demand for Bush Meat Threatens Some African Species Indigenous people sustained by bush meatMore hunters leading to local extinction of some wild animalsUS Agency for International Development, trying to introduce alternatives in some areas.Fish farmsBreeding large rodents, like cane rats.
59Figure 9.22 Bush meat, such as this severed head of a lowland gorilla in the Congo, is consumed as a source of protein by local people in parts of West Africa and sold in the national and international marketplace. You can find bush meat on the menu in Cameroon and the Congo in West Africa as well as in Paris, London, Toronto, New York, and Washington, D.C. It is often supplied by poaching. Wealthy patrons of some restaurants regard gorilla meat as a source of status and power. Question: How, if at all, is this different from killing a cow for food?
609-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from Premature Extinction? (1) Concept 9-4A We can use existing environmental laws and treaties and work to enact new laws designed to prevent species extinction and protect overall biodiversity.Concept 9-4B We can help to prevent species extinction by creating and maintaining wildlife refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos, and aquariums.
619-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from Premature Extinction? (2) Concept 9-4C According to the precautionary principle, we should take measures to prevent or reduce harm to the environment and to human health, even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established, scientifically.
62International Treaties Help to Protect Species 1975: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)Signed by 172 countriesConvention on Biological Diversity (BCD)Focuses on ecosystemsRatified by 190 countries (not the U.S.)
63Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act (1) Endangered Species Act (ESA): 1973 and later amended in 1982, 1983, and 1985Identify and protect endangered species in the U.S. and abroadHot SpotsHabitat Conservation Plan (HCP) colony
64Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act (2) Mixed reviews of the ESAWeaken itRepeal itModify itStrengthen itSimplify itStreamline it
65Confiscated Products Made from Endangered Species
66Science Focus: Accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act (1) Species listed only when serious danger of extinctionTakes decades for most species to become endangered or extinctMore than half of the species listed are stable or improvingBudget has been small
67Science Focus: Accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act (2) Suggested changes to ESAIncrease the budgetDevelop recovery plans more quicklyEstablish a core of the endangered organism’s survival habitat
68We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other Protected Areas 1903: Theodore RooseveltWildlife refugesMost are wetland sanctuariesMore needed for endangered plantsCould abandoned military lands be used for wildlife habitats?
69Botanical gardens and arboreta Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms Can Help Protect SpeciesGene or seed banksPreserve genetic material of endangered plantsBotanical gardens and arboretaLiving plantsFarms to raise organisms for commercial sale
70Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (1) Techniques for preserving endangered terrestrial speciesEgg pullingCaptive breedingArtificial inseminationEmbryo transferUse of incubatorsCross-fostering
71Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (2) Limited space and fundsCritics say these facilities are prisons for the organisms