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Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: the Species Approach

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1 Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: the Species Approach

2 Core Case Study: Polar Bears and Climate Change
Polar ice caps are getting smaller every year The ice is the polar bears natural hunting grounds

3 Core Case Study: Polar Bears and Climate Change
Without the refreezing of polar ice polar bears are having trouble finding food, and raising cubs.

4 9-1 Role Humans Play in Extinction
Biological extinction – dinosaurs, mass extinction, adaptive radiation , mammals Secondary extinction- Black footed Ferret

5 CS: The Passenger Pigeon
At one time it was the most abundant bird species There were so many that a flight of passenger pigeons would darken the sky By the end of the 1880’s only but a thousand passenger pigeons were left and they would soon become extinct

6 Extinctions are natural but sometimes they increase sharply
When keystone species go extinct they can leave their ecosystems weak the last mass extinction was 65 million years ago and was caused by an asteroid

7 Some Human Activities Are Causing Extinctions
Extinction is a natural process, background extinction rate Extinction has accelerated since the arrival of humans, habitat loss Humans have disturbed the environment by filling wetlands, creating urban lands, etc

8 Extinction Rates are Rising Rapidly
Extinction rate is up 1000x the historical background rate, so = mass extinction? At a 1% extinction rate at least ¼ of all plant and animal species could be extinct by the end of this century 71% of all surface water has been disturbed or polluted by human activities

9 SF: Estimating Extinction Rates
Much of the Earth’s species hasn’t even been discovered yet It is estimated that more species are becoming extinct at a faster rate now due to human activity

10 Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms
Species heading toward extinctions are either endangered or threatened An endangered species has so few individual survivors that the species could become extinct The polar bear is a threatened species

11 9-2 : Why Should We Care about the Rising Rate of Species Extinction?

12 Species are a vital part of the earths natural capital
Biodiversity provides natural services that keeps us alive Most species contribute to economic services such as medicine and food

13 Species are a natural part of the earths natural capital
Biodiversity takes millions of years to rebound from extinctions Many people believe that all wild species have the right to live

14 9-3 : How Do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction?

15 Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to Species: Remember HIPPCO
HIPPCO stands for Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation; Invasive species; Population growth and increasing use of resources; Pollution; Climate change; and Overexploitation HIPPCO is the summary of the most important direct causes of extinction by humans

16 Some Deliberately Introduced Species Can Disrupt Ecosystems
The second biggest cause of habitat degradation is introduced species Invasive species may not have any predators, competition, or parasites to control their population in a new habitat Introduced species cost the economy $162,000 and hour worldwide.

17 Some Accidentally Introduced Species Can Disrupt Ecosystems
Many unwanted nonnative invaders arrive accidentally whether through stowaways on aircraft, hitchhikers, tourists, etc. These accidentally introduced species can greatly change the environment around them

18 Prevention Is the Best Way to Reduce threats from Invasive Species
Removing established invasive species is almost impossible Conducting more research and establishing stricter guidelines on cargo ships will help prevent the introduction of invasive species.

19 Population Growth, Overconsumption, Pollution, and Climate Change Can Cause Species Extinctions
Past and projected human population growth and excessive and wasteful consumption of resources have greatly expanded the human ecological footprint, which has eliminated, degraded, and fragmented vast areas of wildlife habitat. These two factors, along with the others, have caused the extinction of many species

20 Population Growth, Overconsumption, Pollution, and Climate Change Can Cause Species Extinctions
Ecological Footprint ?

21 Illegally Killing, Capturing, and Selling Wild Species Threatens Biodiversity
Global wild life trade brings in at least $600,000 an hour Only drugs and weapons top the profits made by international wildlife trade The use of cyanide to catch fish kills more fish than it catches alive and kills coral polyps

22 Rising Demand for Bush Meat Threatens Some African Species
Indigenous people have for centuries sustainably hunted wildlife for bush meat as a source of food Bush meat hunting has skyrocketed in the last 2 decades Bush meat hunting has lead to extinction of many wild animals

23 9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from Extinction

24 International Treaties And National Laws Can Help to Protect Species
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) bans the hunting, capturing, and selling of threatened or endangered species. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) commits countries to reduce the global rate of biodiversity loss.

25 The U.S. Endangered Species Act
The endangered species act of 1973 was designed to identify and protect endangered species in the United States and abroad This act is probably the most far-reaching environmental law ever adopted by any nation Many argue that the act should be simplified and streamlined

26 We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other Protected Areas
In 1903 Pelican Island became the first wildlife refuge. Nearly 60% of the nations wildlife have activities that are harmful to wildlife take place. Most refuges have very little funding

27 Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms Can Help to Protect Species
Gene or seed banks preserve genetic information and endangered plant species by storing their seeds in refrigerated, low-humidity environments More then 100 seed banks around the world collectively hold about 3 million samples

28 Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species
Zoos and Aquariums are being used to preserve some critically endangered animals The preservation is to hopefully reintroduce the species back into protected wild habitats.

29 The Precautionary Principle
Used to argue for both the preservation of species and protections of entire ecosystems. Biodiversity calls for use to take precautionary action to avoid causing more extinctions and more loss of biodiversity

30 CS: The Kudzu Vine The kudzu vine was a deliberately introduced plant species In the 1930s it was imported from Japan and planted in the southeastern United States in attempt to control soil erosion

31 CS: Where Have All The Honeybees Gone?
Adult honeybees live on honey they make from the nectar they collect from flowering plants There are many theories as to why the honeybee is disappearing One theory is that the introduction of African bees are killing off the honey bee

32 CS: A Disturbing Message From The Birds
Roughly 70% of the worlds nearly 10’000 known bird species are declining in numbers Much of this decline is due to human activity which can be summarized with HIPPCO

33 CS: Trying To Save The California Condor
In the early 1980s the condor was nearly extinct Conservationists have been trying to eliminate the treat to the condor Protecting the California condor has cost up to $35 million

34 SF: Vultures, Wild Dogs, And Rabies: Some Unexpected Scientific Connections
Due to the decline in vultures, carcasses are left unconsumed These carcasses are being eating by wild dogs and give them rabies In 1997, more then 30,000 people died from rabies alone

35 SF: Accomplishments of the Endangered Species Act
The ESA has worked to save all endangered species as much as possible Since its creation, the ESA has managed to take off 46 species off the endangered list Many argue that the ESA is much too expensive and need a better way of approaching endangered animal protection

36 IM: A Scientist Who Confronted Poachers
In Thailand, biologist Pilai Poonswad managed to influence a group of poachers who were killing off the rhinoceros hornbills to stop poaching and notice the importance of the species Now these poachers are too helping to preserve the species

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