2 DNA Technology DNA: Can be used as evidence in a criminal case Improve food cropsDetermine if a person is carrying a genetic diseaseTo do research to treat and cure genetic diseases
3 DNA IdentificationHuman genome: the complete genetic material in an individualThere is only a 0.1 % variation from person to personAbout 98% of our genetic makeup does not code for any protein, these regions of DNA are called noncoding DNANoncoding DNA comes in different lengths called length polymorphismsDifferences in lengths of noncoding DNA and other variations account for many of the differences in DNA among individuals
4 Steps in DNA Identification Copying DNAPolymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) quickly produces many copies of DNA
5 Steps in DNA Identification 2. Cutting DNARestriction Enzymes: bacteria proteins that recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the DNA at the sequence
6 Steps in DNA Identification 3. Sorting DNA by sizeGel Electrophoresis: separates DNA fragments according to their size and charge (+ or -)DNA Fingerprint: resulting pattern of DNA fragments
7 Steps in DNA Identification Shorter fragments move fasters and farther than longer fragmentsNegatively charged DNA moves towards the positive side of the gel electrophoresis trayGel is stained and can be transferred to a film or paper for analysis
8 Gel Electrophoresis http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/biotech/gel/
9 Bioethics Warm-UpWould you want to know if you were genetically predisposed to a certain disorder (like heart disease or diabetes)?What if it was for a disorder that has no known treatment?
10 Checking for Understanding How are DNA fingerprints similar to real fingerprints?How are they different?
11 Steps in DNA Identification 4. Accuracy of DNA fingerprintsDNA Fingerprint: resulting pattern of DNA fragmentsThe odds that two people will share an identical DNA profile are approximately 1 in 100 billionThe odds of being attacked by a shark in the United States are roughly 1 in 8 million
13 Recombinant DNAGenetic engineering: Process of altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to allow them to make new substancesRecombinant DNA: DNA from two different organisms are joinedEx: inserting a jellyfish gene that codes for green fluorescent protein into other species
26 Bioethical QuestionShould a company be allowed to patent (and own the exclusive rights of) a genetically modified organism?
27 Genetic Engineering Medical applications: Allows biologists to study how genes function
28 Gene TherapyTreats genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a patient’s cellsWorks best for disorders that result from the loss of a single proteinEx: cystic fibrosis is currently being worked on
32 CloningGoal of most animal cloning is to alter the genome in a useful wayEx: Cloning of goats so they secrete human blood clotting factors into milkEx: Cloning of pigs for organ transplants in humans
33 VaccinesDNA vaccines are made from the DNA of the pathogen, but does not have disease-causing capabilityEx: AIDS, malaria, certain cancers
35 Agricultural Applications Making crops:More tolerant to environment conditionsResistant to herbicidesTo increase food yieldsResistant to diseaseNutritional value greater
36 Ex: Golden Rice Created to provide people with Vitamin A Developed to help the very poor
37 Ex: Flavr Savr Tomato Created to prevent the softening of the tomato Made more resistant to rottingCould be “vine-ripened”
38 Ex: Glofish Inserted fluorescent gene from a jellyfish into zebrafish Sold as a pet
39 Ex: Roundup Ready Soybeans Soybeans that are resistant to Roundup herbicideCreated to reduce the application of harmful herbicides
40 Ethical IssuesBioethics – study of ethical issues related to DNA technologyMost scientists feel rigorous testing and safeguards should be in place for crop alteration
41 Ethical IssuesMost scientists consider gene therapy unethical if it involves reproductive cells that would affect future generationsDecisions about ethical issues are made by the involvement of the scientists and informed public
42 Bioethical QuestionShould we be able to insert non-human DNA into human DNA?Would this change what it means to be “human”?Should humans be able to alter our intelligence via genetic engineering?
43 Bioethical QuestionIf there aren’t any risks associated with GM foods, should companies be required to label foods made with GMOs?