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Chapter 13 Gene Technology. DNA Technology DNA: – Can be used as evidence in a criminal case – Improve food crops – Determine if a person is carrying.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Gene Technology. DNA Technology DNA: – Can be used as evidence in a criminal case – Improve food crops – Determine if a person is carrying."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Gene Technology

2 DNA Technology DNA: – Can be used as evidence in a criminal case – Improve food crops – Determine if a person is carrying a genetic disease – To do research to treat and cure genetic diseases

3 DNA Identification Human genome: the complete genetic material in an individual There is only a 0.1 % variation from person to person About 98% of our genetic makeup does not code for any protein, these regions of DNA are called noncoding DNA Noncoding DNA comes in different lengths called length polymorphisms Differences in lengths of noncoding DNA and other variations account for many of the differences in DNA among individuals

4 Steps in DNA Identification 1.Copying DNA -Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) quickly produces many copies of DNA

5 Steps in DNA Identification 2. Cutting DNA – Restriction Enzymes: bacteria proteins that recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the DNA at the sequence

6 Steps in DNA Identification 3. Sorting DNA by size – Gel Electrophoresis: separates DNA fragments according to their size and charge (+ or -) – DNA Fingerprint: resulting pattern of DNA fragments

7 Steps in DNA Identification – Shorter fragments move fasters and farther than longer fragments – Negatively charged DNA moves towards the positive side of the gel electrophoresis tray – Gel is stained and can be transferred to a film or paper for analysis

8 Gel Electrophoresis gel/ gel/ ody/create-dna-fingerprint.html ody/create-dna-fingerprint.html ture=related ture=related

9 Bioethics Warm-Up Would you want to know if you were genetically predisposed to a certain disorder (like heart disease or diabetes)? What if it was for a disorder that has no known treatment?

10 Checking for Understanding How are DNA fingerprints similar to real fingerprints? How are they different?

11 Steps in DNA Identification 4. Accuracy of DNA fingerprints – DNA Fingerprint: resulting pattern of DNA fragments – The odds that two people will share an identical DNA profile are approximately 1 in 100 billion The odds of being attacked by a shark in the United States are roughly 1 in 8 million

12

13 Recombinant DNA Genetic engineering: Process of altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to allow them to make new substances Recombinant DNA: DNA from two different organisms are joined – Ex: inserting a jellyfish gene that codes for green fluorescent protein into other species

14 Glowing Animals

15 Ex: Golden Rice Created to provide people with Vitamin A Developed to help the very poor

16 Ex: Flavr Savr Tomato Created to prevent the softening of the tomato Made more resistant to rotting Could be “vine-ripened”

17 Ex: Glofish Inserted fluorescent gene from a jellyfish into zebrafish Sold as a pet

18 Ex: Roundup Ready Soybeans Soybeans that are resistant to Roundup herbicide Created to reduce the application of harmful herbicides

19 DNA DNA is universal – the genetic information from one species will work in another species “DNA is DNA”

20 DNA 101 – Quick Refresher DNA formed from units called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made of: –5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose) –Phosphate group –Nitrogenous base Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine

21 DNA 101 – Quick Refresher In all DNA: – A pairs with T – C pairs with G Weak hydrogen bonds form between complimentary base pairs

22 Useful Properties of DNA Restriction enzymes: enzymes used to cut apart DNA strands

23 DNA Manipulation

24 Recombinant DNA Gene of interest: a segment of one species’ DNA that scientists wish to insert into another species’ DNA Plasmid: small rings of DNA found naturally in bacteria cells

25 Recombinant DNA E-ic E-ic

26 Bioethical Question Should a company be allowed to patent (and own the exclusive rights of) a genetically modified organism?

27 Genetic Engineering Medical applications: – Allows biologists to study how genes function

28 Gene Therapy Treats genetic disorders by introducing a gene into a patient’s cells Works best for disorders that result from the loss of a single protein Ex: cystic fibrosis is currently being worked on

29 Gene Therapy

30 Cloning Cloning by nuclear transfer – introducing a nucleus of a body cell into an egg cell to generate an organism identical to the nucleus donor First cloned mammal was Dolly the sheep

31 Cloning

32 Goal of most animal cloning is to alter the genome in a useful way – Ex: Cloning of goats so they secrete human blood clotting factors into milk – Ex: Cloning of pigs for organ transplants in humans

33 Vaccines DNA vaccines are made from the DNA of the pathogen, but does not have disease-causing capability Ex: AIDS, malaria, certain cancers

34 DNA Vaccine

35 Agricultural Applications Making crops: – More tolerant to environment conditions – Resistant to herbicides – To increase food yields – Resistant to disease – Nutritional value greater

36 Ex: Golden Rice Created to provide people with Vitamin A Developed to help the very poor

37 Ex: Flavr Savr Tomato Created to prevent the softening of the tomato Made more resistant to rotting Could be “vine-ripened”

38 Ex: Glofish Inserted fluorescent gene from a jellyfish into zebrafish Sold as a pet

39 Ex: Roundup Ready Soybeans Soybeans that are resistant to Roundup herbicide Created to reduce the application of harmful herbicides

40 Ethical Issues Bioethics – study of ethical issues related to DNA technology Most scientists feel rigorous testing and safeguards should be in place for crop alteration

41 Ethical Issues Most scientists consider gene therapy unethical if it involves reproductive cells that would affect future generations Decisions about ethical issues are made by the involvement of the scientists and informed public

42 Bioethical Question Should we be able to insert non-human DNA into human DNA? Would this change what it means to be “human”? Should humans be able to alter our intelligence via genetic engineering?

43 Bioethical Question If there aren’t any risks associated with GM foods, should companies be required to label foods made with GMOs?


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