Soil Functions Anchorage Water Storage and Conveyance Nutrient Source Growth Medium
Soil Affects Vine Growth Productivity Longevity SoiI is the foundation that affects –Vineyard Design –Irrigation Strategies & Implementation –Canopy and Crop Management –Yields & Fruit Quality –Potential long term problems and vine longevity
Terroir and Soil Soil and local climate –Not the chemistry or “minerality” –More so under non-irrigated “dry farming” Water Holding Capacity and Irrigation Management –Depth and Texture –Regulated Deficits Old Vine Zin Trellised Zinfandel
Grape Vines are the Nutrient & Water Camels of Horticultural Soils
Soil Determines Water Holding Capacity WHC Cation Exchange Capacity CEC pH Drainage Depth of Rooting
“Old School” High Tech Factors in Soil and Vineyard Establishment
Soil Check Soil Survey Maps Observe obvious soil differences and plant/wed distribution. Sample soil at establishment and about every 5 years or so. Keep records of analyses and notes of problems or successes.
California Soil Resource Lab http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/gmap/ Org. Matter Org. Matter Clay Sand Ksat pH Kf Factor EC SAR CaCO3 Gypsum CEC @ pH7 Linear Ext. Map Unit Name: Tokay fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes Component Name: Tokay Official Series DescriptionOfficial Series Description ▼▲ Soil Profiles Official Series Description
Representative Samples Take samples from regular intervals down and across rows to combine for each soil type or block.
Soil Sampling Pre-Plant back hoe pits Discard first 6 inches of topsoil Collect top 12 to 18” for O.M. As separate sample. Sample at each foot level to ~ 3 feet. Combine 3 or more spots of each unique area of the vineyard; along the outer berm about half way between vine and drip emitter. One sample for each area or one per 10 to 20 acres per 10 to 20 acres.
Generalized Geomorphic Model of Alluvium in the San Joaquin Valley Sierra Nevada Granitic Rock Metamorphic Rock of Sierra Foothills Dissected Volcanic Uplands (3-10 million yr) Rolling dissected fan terraces (>600,000 yr) Undulating low fan terraces (130,000-330,000 yr) Low relief alluvial fans (0-70,000 yr) Alluvial basins (0-14,000 yr) Flood plains (0-14,000 yr) West East
Physical Factors Texture –Sand, Silt, Clay, and O.M. Depth –Rooting Depth & Total Available Water Layers –Root growth impaired Restrictions –Roots impaired; drainage affected; aeration
Soil Water Holding Capacity WHC Soil Texture Available Water Holding capacity (in. of water/foot of soil) Very coarse sands 0.4 - 0.75 Coarse sands, fine sands, loamy sands 0.75 - 1.25 Sandy loams, fine sandy loams 1.25 - 1.75 Very fine sandy loams, loams, silt loams 1.50 - 2.30 Clay loams, silty clay loams, sandy clay loams 1.75 - 2.50 Sandy clays, silty clays, clays 1.60 - 2.50
Physical Factors Aggregation (clod size) –Strong –Massive –Prismatic Layers –Root growth impaired –Permeability of water rain or applied Restrictions –Roots impaired; drainage affected; aeration
Vermiculite-intermediately weathered soils Smectite-shrink swell clays Kaolinite-old, highly weathered soils Exchangeable K on clay surface & edges Fixed K-very slowly available Effects of clay minerals on the fate of K
Soil K fixation in Lodi winegrape district: Summary of profiles from 141 locations in 36 vineyards (2006-09 -- Pettygrove, Southard, O’Geen, and Minoshima, UC Davis) Landscape positionK-fixing Location- dependent Non K-fixing Fine textured alluvial basin Dierssen, Guard, Scribner Archerdale, Hollenbeck Galt, Stockton, Clearlake Flood plain low relief alluvial fans SailboatTokay, Columbia Tujunga, Acampo, Kingdon Rolling, dissected low fan terraces San Joaquin, Yellowlark, Kaseberg Montpellier, Cometa, Bruella Madera, Alamo Rolling dissected higher fan terraces Redding Dissected volcanic uplands Pentz, Bellota
K Applications to soil Historically very wide range of K rates Recommended: 30 to >1500 lb K 2 O/acre) K moves to roots by diffusion – very short distance Late season deficit irrigation under drip can reduce root uptake – when K demand is high Drip fertigation appears to be an efficient way to supply K to vines – much lower rates required Typical K rates applied by drip are adequate for K-fixing soils Monitoring and replacement on regular basis needed Few K fertilizer rate studies published Still several unknowns about K application and uptake Pettygrove et al, 2012
K Summary K fixation is a significant property of some vineyard soils, but its significance for winegrape production is not fully understood. Fixation and response depends on clay type, amount and ? Clays and clay loams strongest fixers Some loams and sandy loams (vermiculite in fine sand fraction) Grapes excellent foragers of K Annual K removal is very significant Most fixation is below 8 inches K response can be inconsistent from buffering of soil, water K and pH correlation not direct or strong –Irrigation, Vine vigor (Balance) and Vineyard Design important
Soil Organic Matter Most soils very low in CA Extremely difficult to increase O.M. under CA conditions Different soil types will contribute various amounts of mineralized biological material Mineralized Nitrogen from Humus* Soil TypeHumus %Mineralized N (lbs/yr) Loamy sand0.310 to 15 Sandy Loam0.620 to 25 Fine Sandy Loam1.550 to 65 *Average of two feet of soil Bill Peacock, UC Farm Advisor Emeritus, Tulare County
Some Problem Sites Serpentine Soils –High magnesium High lime or Calcareous sub soils –Lime induced chlorosis –High pH Intensely grazed pasture lands/corrals –Micro-nutrient deficiencies –High nitrates - vine vigor “Old” (highly weathered) Soils –low n available P Coarse sandy soils –Low CEC –Salinity/Sodicity High organic soils –Same as above –Low pH
Guidelines on Soil Suitability for Grapes Soil Factor No Problem (less than 10% yield loss) Increased problem (10 to 25% yield loss expected) Severe Problems (25 to 50% yield loss expected) Salinity E.C. (dS/M) < 0.7 to 1.51.5 to 3.0 > 3 Permeability ESP (est) Below 1010 to 15 Above 15 Cl meq/l (ppm)Below 10 (350)10 to 30 (350-1060) Above 30 (1060) B ppmBelow 11 to 3Above 3 Na meq/l (ppm)-Above 30(690)- pH5.5 to 8.5- - UC Div of Ag Sci. Leaflet 21056 1978
*Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program Soils and Water Sample well source annually, if budget allows. Standard panel of analyses is enough and relevant to nutrient and irrigation strategies; E.C., pH, bicarbonates, B (if potential problem). Nitrate level is important to overall Nitrogen program. Expressed as either NO ₃ -N or NO ₃ Beginning in 2015 –“Farm Evaluations”; –Farm Plan –Well ID –Erosion and Sediment Plan –Nitrogen Plan and N use reports will be required in following years. East San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast, Sacramento Valley and Delta San Joaquin regions are first. All of California to follow. Keep records of analyses and notes for info and future compliance.
*Nitrogen in the Irrigation Water Conversion from ppm in Irrigation water to lbs/ac-in applied Conversion to lbs N / ac-in: ppm (NO 3 ) x 0.052 = lbs N / ac-in ppm (NO 3 -N) x 0.23 = lbs N / ac- in Applied Water 18 inches/season 6 ppm NO - 3 x 0.052 x 18 = 5.6 lbs. N per season
Biological Native Vegetation of Area Previous Crop Nematodes Phylloxera Oak Root Fungus Armillaria sp Others
Sour Dock Cattails Alkali plant Irrigated Alfalfa Dry land Pasture Grapes
Biological Nematodes –Root knot Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla –Ring Mesocriconema (=Criconemella) xenoplax –Lesion Pratylenchus vulnus –Dagger (X. index; X americanum) + GFLV Phylloxera Oak Root Fungus Armillaria sp Verticillium, Crown Gall ( Agrobacterium vitis) Grape Fanleaf Virus Others
Sources of Information Biology of the Grapevine, M.G. Mullins, M.G., A. Bouquet and L.E. Williams. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 1992 Grape Pest Management Third Edition, Bettiga et al. UCANR 3343 2013 General Viticulture by Winkler, Cook, Kliever & Lider. 1976 Hilgardia Publications List 1925-1995 at Integrated Viticulture (below) http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/gmap/ http://iv.ucdavis.edu http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/ http://www.coststudies.ucdavis.edu http://ucmanagedrought.ucdavis.edu/ http://www. lodiwine.com/lodi-winegrowers-workbook
Scientific Art vs Artful Science “By the year 2000, it may be that the triggering mechanisms inducing the grape to produce flavorants will have been established. It may, by then, be possible both to control bottle aged character in wines through viticultural practices and also to enhance varietal character in fruit by the judicious addition of stimulatory substances applied to the vine during growth.” Strauss, Wilson and Williams, 1985
Summary Soil –Vine Growth and Productivity Determinants –WHC – CEC –Depth of Rooting –Drainage Characteristics –Physical –Chemical –Biological Soils Determine –Vineyard Design –Irrigation Strategies & Implementation –Canopy and Crop Management –Yields & Fruit Quality –Potential long term problems and vine longevity