CHILE History Missionaries planted pais (mission grape) in mid-1500s French influence is great since mid- 1700s; vines brought over, and viticulture and viniculture styles, etc.; even came over to make wine during phylloxera outbreak in France Chilean bureaucracy until 1980s kept them behind rest of the world; international investment started coming in and is now know for more than “cheap” wine
CHILE Cheap labor still Majority of wine produced is exported; different than what locals drink Nicknamed “Bordeaux of South America” because of consistency, quality and grapes Long, narrow country; Andes separate it from Argentina Free from major pests (phylloxera) and diseases due to seclusion and natural boundaries (valleys between ocean and Andes Mountains, desert and ice; irrigation from melted snow from Andes contributed too
CHILE More than 20 grape varieties and some had been misidentified (carmenere for one)since when they were brought over hundreds of years ago Whites - chardonnay, sauvignon blanc Reds - carmenere, cabernet sauvignon, merlot Many wine regions of importance, but most are located in the Vale Central; 600 mile long grape-growing area that is about the same size as California Warm, dry, sunny, Mediterranean-like climate, but does vary from North to South Cabernet sauvignon with beef!
ARGENTINA History Missionaries planted criolla (mission grape) in late-1500s Heavier influence from Spanish and Italians with grape vines brought over Went from cheap bulk to finer wines in mid-1990s Local consumption has decreased dramatically over the past few decades, so need to export now Foreign investment and modernization like Chile Mendoza is the center Two companies dominating market
ARGENTINA Argentina, Andes, Altitude Sunny and above sea level in foothills In rain-shadow of Andes No where near large body of water like other major wine regions Irrigation needed; dry, but higher yields with Phylloxera – not a problem which is similar to Chile
ARGENTINA Grapes Malbec – full-bodied, brambly; the star Torrontes – medium-bodied, dry, similar to gewurztraminer Criolla – mission grape Italian (bonarda, barbera, sangiovese), tempranillo and International (cabernet sauvignon) Big red wines with beef (asado)
SOUTH AFRICA History Making wine for over 300 years, Heavily influenced by Old World techniques and purchases; on trade route Apartheid Gaining sales again, but quality suffered; since 1990s, trying to regain world-wide respect Large cooperatives dominate
SOUTH AFRICA Most vineyards located in south and western coastal areas Influenced by coastal breezes off Atlantic and Indian Oceans Key grapes Whites – chenin blanc, sauvignon blanc Reds – pinotage (cross between pinot noir and cinsault) Influence on cuisine by Dutch, English and local culture