Presentation on theme: "Step 1: Define the Activity Suitability for Hops No variety specified Can be grown successfully anywhere between 35 and 55 degrees N or S Hundreds of varieties."— Presentation transcript:
Step 1: Define the Activity Suitability for Hops No variety specified Can be grown successfully anywhere between 35 and 55 degrees N or S Hundreds of varieties – Aroma vs. Bittering vs. Noble Focus is on growing hops commercially for harvest of flowers As opposed to growing for rhizomes to be sold to nurseries, etc. Planting - ~25yr. Life cycle Easily propagated – minimal equipment necessary Hops are harvested by hand – minimal equipment The Strobile (female flower) Soil Depth for rooting as well as trellis system important Deep rooting system Poles for trellis support should be at least 3’ deep High water demands – irrigation Minimum of 120 Frost Free Days needed for flowering ~20-30” precipitation
Step 2: Separate Aspects Aspect Trellis Installation – Twining & training vines clockwise Irrigation – Drip is preferred method Weed & Disease/Pest Management – Prior to planting & once established between rows Harvest – Summer – before rains, frost & wind – Commercial growers harvest entire vine Slope – Relatively flat Criteria Some Equipment Needed See Irrigation Interpretation Weed Control – tillage equipment recommended Harvest by hand – Small tractor or wagon to carry buckets Height of trellis, ladder accessibility
Step 3: Identify Site Features Site Features – degrees latitude N or S – Slope < 10% – Full Sun – Frost Free Days Min. 120 days Full Flower Development – Warm Dry Growing Season Disease Control (Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew) Xeric to Semi Arid climate regime – Wind Protection Protection from vine breakage – ½ acre or more for commercial production 8 foot spacing between rows
Step 4: Identify Soil Properties Depth to Water Table – Roots require Well Drained Soil – 1m min. to water table – Verticillium Wilt – Damage to subsurface tile lines by large roots pH – Mildly Acidic to Mildly Alkali preference Depth to Restrictive Feature – Very Deep Rooting System – Poles for trellis – 1m min. Flooding, Ponding – Disease control Texture – Fine sandy loams, silt loams ideal
PropertySuitedSomewhat SuitedNot suitedReason Depth to Water Table ≥ 1 m 0.5 m – 1 m<.5 m Disease Control Ponding Rare OccasionalFrequent Disease control FloodingRareOccasionalFrequent Disease Control Frost Free Days >120 ≥120 <120 A minimum of 120 Frost Free Days is needed for full development of hop flower. Depth to Restrictive Feature ≥ 1 m0.5 m – 1 m< 0.5 m Hops have a very deep rooting system. Additionally, the poles used in the trellis system should be buried at least 3’ below soil surface. pH ; 7.0 – 8.2 > 8.2, < 5.7 Prefers slightly acidic soil conditions. Alkaline and saline non-preferable. Soil amendments may be necessary. Photo Period (hrs/day) ≥ 12 hrs hrs. < 10 hrs. During growing season. April – October (at a latitude 35-55) Precipitation (non-irrigated) >762 mm mm <508 mm Dry climate discourages many diseases. Slope <55-10% > 10% Slopes greater than 10% may limit trellis installation and harvest methods. % Sand > 50% <50% 40-50% < 50% >50% Fine sandy loam is the optimal soil texture in higher precipitation areas. Silt loam is optimal in lower precipitation areas. % Clay < 20% > 60% < 30% 50-60% > 30% < 50% Fine sandy loam is the optimal soil texture in higher precipitation areas. Silt loam is optimal in lower precipitation areas. % Rock Fragments < 15%15-35% > 35% Affects AWC, tillage, post holes for trellis system Soil and Site Suitability – Growing Hops Commercially
Narrative The hop is a perennial plant that is commercially grown in the Northern half of the United States. The primary function for growing hops is to manufacture beer. The soil properties and qualities used are found on the criteria table on the previous slide. The soil properties and qualities that influence the commercial growing of a hops are slope, depth to water table, rock fragments, and depth to restrictive features. Other properties and qualities that may cause problems after construction are flooding, ponding, frost free days, pH, photo period, precipitation, and % sand and clay.
Literature Review Resources Cited for this Interpretation Hops: Organic Production – Small Scale & Organic Hops Production – Challenges and Opportunities for Organic Hop Production in the United States. – https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/pdfs/103/6/1645 https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/pdfs/103/6/1645 Brew your own beer? Why not grow your own hops, too? – Sustainable Hop Production in the Great Lake Region: – Lakes-Region.pdf Lakes-Region.pdf Growing Hops in the Backyard-Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extension – https://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/fs992/ https://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/fs992/ Rogue Hops Farm, Polk Co., Oregon; Moxee Valley area, Yakima Co., Washington (Site Information) – https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/osdname.asp