Presentation on theme: "Step 1: Define the Activity"— Presentation transcript:
1Step 1: Define the Activity Suitability for HopsNo variety specifiedCan be grown successfully anywhere between 35 and 55 degrees N or SHundreds of varieties – Aroma vs. Bittering vs. NobleFocus is on growing hops commercially for harvest of flowersAs opposed to growing for rhizomes to be sold to nurseries, etc.Planting - ~25yr. Life cycleEasily propagated – minimal equipment necessaryHops are harvested by hand – minimal equipmentThe Strobile (female flower)Soil Depth for rooting as well as trellis system importantDeep rooting systemPoles for trellis support should be at least 3’ deepHigh water demands – irrigationMinimum of 120 Frost Free Days needed for flowering~20-30” precipitation
2Step 2: Separate Aspects CriteriaSome Equipment NeededSee Irrigation InterpretationWeed Control – tillage equipment recommendedHarvest by hand – Small tractor or wagon to carry bucketsHeight of trellis, ladder accessibilityAspectTrellis InstallationTwining & training vines clockwiseIrrigationDrip is preferred methodWeed & Disease/Pest ManagementPrior to planting & once established between rowsHarvestSummer – before rains, frost & windCommercial growers harvest entire vineSlopeRelatively flat
3Step 3: Identify Site Features 35-55 degrees latitude N or SSlope< 10%Full SunFrost Free DaysMin. 120 daysFull Flower DevelopmentWarm Dry Growing SeasonDisease Control (Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew)Xeric to Semi Arid climate regimeWind ProtectionProtection from vine breakage½ acre or more for commercial production8 foot spacing between rows
4Step 4: Identify Soil Properties Depth to Water TableRoots require Well Drained Soil – 1m min. to water tableVerticillium WiltDamage to subsurface tile lines by large rootspHMildly Acidic to Mildly Alkali preferenceDepth to Restrictive FeatureVery Deep Rooting SystemPoles for trellis – 1m min.Flooding, PondingDisease controlTextureFine sandy loams, silt loams ideal
5Soil and Site Suitability – Growing Hops Commercially PropertySuitedSomewhat SuitedNot suitedReasonDepth to Water Table≥ 1 m 0.5 m – 1 m< .5 mDisease ControlPondingRare OccasionalFrequentDisease controlFloodingOccasionalFrost Free Days>120 ≥120 <120A minimum of 120 Frost Free Days is needed for full development of hop flower.Depth to Restrictive Feature0.5 m – 1 m< 0.5 mHops have a very deep rooting system. Additionally, the poles used in the trellis system should be buried at least 3’ below soil surface.pH6.0 - 7.0 ; 7.0 – 8.2 > 8.2, < 5.7Prefers slightly acidic soil conditions. Alkaline and saline non-preferable. Soil amendments may be necessary.Photo Period (hrs/day)≥ 12 hrs.10-12 hrs.< 10 hrs.During growing season. April – October (at a latitude 35-55)Precipitation(non-irrigated) >762 mm mm <508 mmDry climate discourages many diseases.Slope<55-10%> 10%Slopes greater than 10% may limit trellis installation and harvest methods.% Sand> 50%<50%40-50%< 50%>50%Fine sandy loam is the optimal soil texture in higher precipitation areas. Silt loam is optimal in lower precipitation areas.% Clay< 20%> 60%< 30%50-60%> 30%% Rock Fragments< 15%15-35%> 35%Affects AWC, tillage, post holes for trellis system
6NarrativeThe hop is a perennial plant that is commercially grown in the Northern half of the United States. The primary function for growing hops is to manufacture beer.The soil properties and qualities used are found on the criteria table on the previous slide.The soil properties and qualities that influence the commercial growing of a hops are slope, depth to water table, rock fragments, and depth to restrictive features. Other properties and qualities that may cause problems after construction are flooding, ponding, frost free days, pH, photo period, precipitation, and % sand and clay.
7Resources Cited for this Interpretation Literature ReviewResources Cited for this InterpretationHops: Organic ProductionSmall Scale & Organic Hops ProductionChallenges and Opportunities for Organic Hop Production in the United States.https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/pdfs/103/6/1645Brew your own beer? Why not grow your own hops, too?Sustainable Hop Production in the Great Lake Region:Growing Hops in the Backyard-Rutgers Cooperative Research and Extensionhttps://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/fs992/Rogue Hops Farm, Polk Co., Oregon; Moxee Valley area, Yakima Co., Washington (Site Information)https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/osdname.asp