2Definition“a series of visible and invisible responses of plant cells and tissues to a pathogenic microorganism or environmental factors that result in adverse changes in the form ,function , or integrity of the plant and may lead to partial impairment or death of the plant or its parts”
3CAUSES OF PLANT DISEASE 2. Non- Living (inanimate) 1. Living (animate)2. Non- Living (inanimate)CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT DISEASE1. on the basis of extent to which diseases are associated with plant : a) Localised diseases b) Systemic diseases2. on the basis of mode of primary infection : a) Soil-borne diseases b) Air – borne diseases c) Seed- borne diseases3. on the basis of kind of symptoms : a) Rust b) Smut c) Mildews d) Root- dots e) Blightsf) leaf spots g) Wilts h) Cankers i) fruit – rots and etc…
4Disease Caused By Fungi 1)DOWNY MILDEWSDowny mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete microbes that are obligate parasites of plants. Downy mildews exclusively belong to Peronosporaceae.Development and severity depend greatly on the presence of a film of water on the plant tissue and on high humidity in air during cool or warm periods.Bordeaux – 1st FungicideIt may destroy 40-90% of young plant heavy losses of crop yield .
5Downy Mildew Of Grapes ( Vitis vinifera) Symptomatology:# small ,pale yellow ,irregular spot on upper surface of leaf.# downy growth of the sporangiosphore of the fungus appear on the underside of spots. White downy spore masses on the lower surface of the leaf.#Later, infected leaf areas are killed and turn brown ; spots often enlarge, unite or combine to form large dead areas and finally result to defoliation.
6# #berries become leathery ,distorted ,thickened , wrinkled and may die . #Downy mildew rapidly kills highly susceptible young bunches , but berries are immune well before pea-size.
7Caused by Plasmopara viticola. Etiology :Caused by Plasmopara viticola.
8Control:*sanitation*use of Resistant Varieties (Several North American species show resistance to downy mildew (e.g. V. labrusca and V. rotundifolia) ) .*Fungicidal Sprays – Bordeaux, Zineb & Mineb(0.2%), Captan ( %),Metalaxyl with Copper Oxychloride(0.3%).*Automatic weather stations (AWS) monitor the vine canopy for leaf wetness, rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, critical to downy mildew.
9Downy Mildew Of Bajra Symptomatology: # the infected plants are dwarfed because of shortening of internodes & tillering is excessive.# the foliage become pale & chlorotic & on the underside covered by sporangia. Leaves become distorted and wrinkled .#the whole inflorescence reduced and converted into leafy bearded structure without bearing any grains.
10Etiology: Control: Causal organism of Downy mildew of Bajra Sclerospora graminicolaControl:# Seed Treatment : hot water treatment or treatment with Cresan & Agrosan GN.# Resistant Varieties .# crop rotation & avoidance of water logging will reduce the primary inoculums.
112) Fungal Wilt.*A wilt disease is any number of disease that affect the vascular system of plants. Vascular wilts are widespread, very destructive , spectacular and frightening plant disease .*which characterized by rapid wilting, browning and dying of leaves and succulent shoots of plant followed by death of the whole plant.*the infected plant loose turgidity, become flaccid and light green to yellow , droop , finally wilt brown die.*xylem vessel may be clogged with mycelium ,spores or polysaccharides produced by fungus. Clogging is further increased by gels and gums formed by accumulation and oxidation of breakdown products of plant cells attacked by fungal enzymes.*fungus in leaves cause reduced chlorophyll synthesis along the vein (vein clearing) and reduced photosynthesis, disrupt the permeability of the leaf cell membranes and their ability to control water loss through transpiration , and thereby result in leaf epinasty ,wilting , interveinal necrosis , browning and finally death.
12Fusarium Wilt :*Fusarium wilt is a common vascular wilt fungal disease, exhibiting symptoms similar to Verticillium wilt . The pathogen that causes Fusarium wilt is Fusarium oxysporum .*F. oxysporum is a common soil saprophyte that infects a wide host range of plant species around the world. Development of the disease is favored by high temperatures and warm moist soils.*The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum affects a wide variety of hosts of any age. Tomato, tobacco, legumes, cucurbits, sweet potatoes and banana are a few of the most susceptible plants, but it will also infect other herbaceous plants. *Fusarium oxysporum generally produces symptoms such as wilting, chlorosis, necrosis, premature leaf drop, browning of the vascular system, stunting, and damping-off. The most important of these is vascular wilt. On older plants, symptoms are more distinct between the blossoming and fruit maturation stages.
13Fusarium Wilt Of Tomato : Symptomatology :# slight vein clearing on outer leaflets and drooping of leaf petioles.# leaves Epinasty caused by drooping of Petioles.# Later the lower leaves wilt, turn yellow and die and the entire plant may be killed, often before the plant reaches maturity. Wilting of leaves , marginal necrosis , brown streaks, defoliation.# yellowing of the foliage, beginning with the lower leaves and working upward. Yellowing often begins on one side of the vine. Infected leaves later show downward curling, followed by browning and drying.
14# In many cases a single shoot wilts before the rest of the plant shows symptoms or one side of the plant is affected first .Main stem is cut, dark, chocolate-brown streaks may be seen running lengthwise through the stem.#This discoloration often extends upward for some distance and is especially evident at the point where the petioles joins the stem. Vascular browning can be seen in infected stems and large leaf petioles.
15# root systems are stunted # root systems are stunted. The degree of stunting depends upon time of root infection and in some cases adventitious roots are formed.
16Etiology: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici The pathogen is soil borne and persists for many years in the soil without a host. Most infections originate from the fungus associated with infected tomato debris.
17Control :# Use of Resistant Varieties ( Amelia , BHN-444, Carolina gold, Empire, Florida 47, Floralina , Mountain pride , etc….)# Soil sterilization .# hot water treatment to seeds.# Solar heating .
183) Bacterial Blight of Rice : Damage is due to partial or complete blighting of the leaves or due to complete wilting of the affected tillers leading to unfilled grains.This disease known since 1881 in Japan , become quite severe in India since 15 years.In leaf blight disease, the spots enlarge in size, rapidly necrotic, and through combine of several small spots, may produce large dead areas of various shapes.Bacterium induce either wilting of plant or leaf blight .Wilting syndrome known as ‘Kresek’ occurs sporadically in the field causing serious damage.Bacterial blight commonly occur within 3-4 weeks after transplantation of crop. Bacterial blight of rice causes annual losses as high as 60%.
19Symptomatology :# Linear yellow to straw colored stripes with wavy margin developed usually on both the edges of the leaf. The stripes usually develop from the tip towards the base dry rapidly wither.# Spots formed on leaf sheath combine to form straw brown large lesions.# Bacterial ooze, pale amber in color, is found on the affected portions. On drying, these drops make crust and make the leaf surface rough.# As disease advances, the lesions cover the entire blade, turn white & later become grayish due to the growth of saprophytic fungi.
20# wilt affected tillers leading to unfilled grains.
21Xanthomonas campestris pathovar oryzae Etiology:Xanthomonas campestris pathovar oryzaeGram –ve rod , 0.5 – 1.0 micron ,non – sporing with a single polar flagella, aerobic and TDP – 53 degree Celsius .On N.A , colonies are tiny , circular & bright yellow.The pathogen may survive on crop debris in soil. The bacterium is carried over through infected seeds.Rainy weather , strong wind and temperature of C favor the rapid spread of disease in the field.