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European Grape Vine Moth (EGVM) Susan Komanetsky Vineyard Pest & Disease Management May 9, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "European Grape Vine Moth (EGVM) Susan Komanetsky Vineyard Pest & Disease Management May 9, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Grape Vine Moth (EGVM) Susan Komanetsky Vineyard Pest & Disease Management May 9, 2014

2 Introduction Lobesia botrana Destructive pest - “Generalist” Primary Hosts Wine, table and wild grapes and raisins, olives, stone fruits, wild spurge laurel Secondary Hosts Carnations, gooseberry, pomegranate, kiwi, blackberry

3 Originally identified in Southern Italy North & West Africa Chile - 2008 Napa – 2009 Argentina – 2010 Japan - 2014

4 Description of Pest Eggs Flat, elliptical (0.02-0.03 in) Iridescent creamy white turning to yellow with black spot(evolving embryo head) Translucent outer shell (chorion) after larvae emerge Single eggs laid 7-10 days after fertilization Eggs laid at dusk Larvae emerge 10-15 days later (62.5– 68 F) Females lay 35 eggs per day for 6-7 days

5 Larvae emerge creamy white with black head 10-15 days later when temps 62.5-68 F Protothorax turns a yellow brown with distal edge a darker brown to black 5 Larval Stages Final larval stage - cuticle becomes transparent Body color reflects intestinal contents Dark brown to black legs Anal comb with 4-5 brown teeth

6 Biology and Weakness 2-4 Generations per year depending on photoperiod 1st Generation (April - May) Larvae emerge from cocoon when temps 50 °F for 10- 12 days to feed on flowers and buds 2nd Generation (June - August) Larvae feed on green immature berries Third Generation (August - October) Larvae feed on mature berries 3rd/4th Generation Larvae prepares cocoon too overwinter as Pupae

7 Adult Bell-shape at rest 1/4” long 1/2” wing span Coloring Mosaic Pattern Tan-cream forewing mottling with brown-blue markings and blue-gray bands Grey hind wings with fringed border

8 Lifecycle in Pictures Diapause when evening temps begin to decrease and last 11 hours Pupae (over winter as pupae) 0.17 to 0.28 Inches long (male) 0.2 to 0.3 inches long (female) Adults emerge 12-15 days after pupation (linger over winter) Males emerge 1 week earlier than females Fly at dusk when temps 53.5 degrees F

9 Pest Damage Potential Economic Loss (Grapes) - California 2008 - 849,000 Acres Vine 2009 - $3.9 billion market value 2009 - Napa 10 acres destroyed Crop damage from larval feeding Web two berries together – feed from inside 1st Generation - buds & flowers 2nd & 3rd Generations - berries

10 Pest Monitoring & Management Pheromone-bate Traps (1/10 acres) Observation (1 week after each peak flight) Spring - 1 flower cluster/vine for 100 vines 2nd & 3rd Generations – 1 bunch berries/vine for 100 vines Fresh eggs reflect direct sunlight, shin, white Monitor and record weekly

11 IPM of EVGM Mating Disruption with synthetic pheromones (disrupts monitoring) older females produce few/non-viable eggs Insecticides Life cycle specific 1st Generation - Just prior or at bloom 2nd & 3rd Generation - when 1st moths trapped Ovicidal or Larvicidal Not effective after bunch closure Biological Control Parasitoids of Tachnid Flies Parasitic Wasps Ichneumonid Wasp - Napa Trichogramma species - Europe Sanitation Isolate stakes, posts & equipment Quarantine (5 mile radius) > 2 adult moths within 3 miles 1 adult moth in single trap Inspections Monthly

12 Conclusion EGVM is an invasive pest Targeted by CDFA and USDA- Animal & Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) for ERADICATION IPM recommended strategies

13 Photo References Slide 1 Photo 1 - Retrieved from Retrieved 5/3/ Photo 2 - Retrieved from Photo 3 - Retrieved from Slide 2 Photo 1 - retrieved from Slide 3 Map 1 - Varela, Lucia G. (2010). Practical Winery & Vineyard Journal. EGVM in Napa Vineyards. Retrieved from Slide 4 Photo 1 & 2 - Retrieved from Slide 5 Photo 1 & 3 - retrieved from Photo 2 - retrieved from Photo 4 - Retrieved from Slide 6 Photo 1 - Gilligan, T.M. & Epstein, M. E. (2012). Tortricids of Agricultural Importance. Retrieved from Slide 7 Photo 2 - Retrieved from Photo 23- Retrieved from Retrieved 5/3/ Photo 1 - Retrieved from Slide 8 Photo 1 - Life cycle: Retrieved from Slide 9 Graph 1 - Retrieved 5/3/ Photo 2 - Pupae: Retrieved from Slide 10 Photo 1 - Retrieved from Photo 2 - Photo 3 - Retrieved from article/20100513/articles/ Photo 4 - Retrieved from Slide 11 Slide 1 - Wasp. retrieved from Slide 2 - Spraying. Retrieved from Slide 3 - Quarantined. Retrieved from Slide 12 Slide 1 - Grapes. Retrieved from

14 References Bettiga, Larry J. (2013). Grape pest management, 3 rd Ed. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Communication Services. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Communication Services. Cooper, M. (2011). European grapevine moth biology and management. UC Cooperative Extension. Retrieved from www.countyofnapaorg/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id Department of Food and Agriculture (n.d.). Proposed changes in the regulations title 3, California code of regulations section 3591.24 Hoenisch, Richard (nd). The european grapevine moth, lobesia botrana. First US Report. Western Plant Diagnostic Network Pest Alert. Retrieved from www. Policy Analysis & Development, Policy & Program Development, Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture. (2010). Economic impacts of the european grapevine moth (lobesia botrana) in California. Retrieved from www. Smith, Rhonda & Varela, Lucia. (2010). Treating second generation of lobesia botrana(egvm) in a quarantine area. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, UC Cooperative Extension Sonoma County. Retrieved from cesonoma, Thiery, Denis, & Moreau, Jerome. (2005). Relative performance of European grapevine moth (lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts. Oecologia, 143, 548-555. Doi: 10.10007/s00442-005-0022-7 Torres-Vila, L., Rodriguz-Molina, M.C., & Stokel, J. (2002). Delayed mating reduces reproductive output of female european grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol 92, Issue 3, number 6. pp 241-249. Retrieved from United States Department of Agriculture (2012). Federal order: domestic quarantine for lobesia botrana (European Grapevine moth). DA-2012-07. Retrieved from Varela, Lucia G. (2010). European Grapevine Moth: Lobesia borana factsheet University of California Cooperative Extension & Statewide IPM Program. Retrieved from Zalom, Frank.G., Varela, L.ucia G. & Cooper, Monica. (2011) European grapevine moth (lobesia botrana) professional Guidelines. Retrieved from grapevinemoth.html grapevinemoth.html

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