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Grapevine Irrigation Management Dr. Robert L. Wample April 1, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Grapevine Irrigation Management Dr. Robert L. Wample April 1, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grapevine Irrigation Management Dr. Robert L. Wample April 1, 2004

2 Management ( Webster’s Dictionary) To handle or direct with a degree of skill To handle or direct with a degree of skill To treat with care To treat with care To alter by manipulation To alter by manipulation To achieve one’s purpose (goal) To achieve one’s purpose (goal) Wisdom Knowledge Information K 0C 32F

3 Irrigation Management No More RDI! Information + KnowledgeWisdom Eto x Kc = Etc Soil moisture Water potential (Plant water status)

4 Management Grapevine Irrigation Management Plant Water Status And Physiological Response Evaporative Demand Eto x Kc = Etc Soil Moisture Management

5 Grapevine Irrigation Management Plant Water Status Pressure chamber Shoot growth rate Leaf temperature

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9 InfraRed and Air Temperature Measurement Objective: Objective: Simultaneous measurement of leaf and air temperature Simultaneous measurement of leaf and air temperature Supplement or replacement of pressure chamber Supplement or replacement of pressure chamber Geolocation of data Geolocation of data Fast (~ 10 seconds) Fast (~ 10 seconds)

10 Grapevine Irrigation Management Eto x Kc = Etc (expenditures) Crop Coefficient (Kc) Published Information Larry Williams Technique (% shade area at solar noon X 0.017) + cover crop if present Eto (class “A” pan or calculated) Published information Weather Stations

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12 Grapevine Irrigation Management Soil Moisture (bank account) Neutron Probe Capacitance Probes Tensiometers (?) Soil Sampling Tube Shovel Steel Rod

13 Grapevine Water Requirements When: When: budbreak to flowering (<5%) budbreak to flowering (<5%) flowering to fruit set (15%) flowering to fruit set (15%) fruit set to veraison (60%) fruit set to veraison (60%) veraison to harvest (20%) veraison to harvest (20%) harvest to leaf fall (dormancy) (3-5%) harvest to leaf fall (dormancy) (3-5%) How much Irrigation: How much Irrigation: On a worldwide basis 0-30 acre-inches On a worldwide basis 0-30 acre-inches

14 Grapevine Irrigation Management Developing an irrigation plan Developing an irrigation plan setting goals for your vineyard setting goals for your vineyard acquire information acquire information Eto, Eto, Kc, Kc, precipitation(total and seasonal) precipitation(total and seasonal) know your soils (variability)depth, profile, water holding capacity, infiltration rate (This is the vines “water bank account”) know your soils (variability)depth, profile, water holding capacity, infiltration rate (This is the vines “water bank account”) evaluate your water supply (reliability, quality) evaluate your water supply (reliability, quality) Plant water status Plant water status

15 Grapevine Irrigation Management Developing an irrigation plan (cont.) Developing an irrigation plan (cont.) know your vines know your vines rootstock, root system rootstock, root system general health (nematodes, phylloxera, etc.) general health (nematodes, phylloxera, etc.) understand the “banking system” understand the “banking system” deposits (precipitation and irrigation) deposits (precipitation and irrigation) withdrawals (evaporation, transpiration) withdrawals (evaporation, transpiration) bank charges (bound water, deep percolation, impenetrable barriers) bank charges (bound water, deep percolation, impenetrable barriers)

16 Grapevine Irrigation Management Developing an irrigation plan (cont.) Developing an irrigation plan (cont.) understand the “economics of water use” understand the “economics of water use” changes in seasonal withdrawals changes in seasonal withdrawals benefits or costs of low balance benefits or costs of low balance the ability to increase your bank balance the ability to increase your bank balance timeliness timeliness quantity quantity UNDERSTAND YOUR IRRIGATION SYSTEM UNDERSTAND YOUR IRRIGATION SYSTEM

17 Grapevine Irrigation Management THERE ARE NO SILVER BULLETS THERE ARE NO SILVER BULLETS THIS IS A HIGHER LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT THIS IS A HIGHER LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT REQUIRES AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ANNUAL CYCLES OF GRAPEVINE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSIOLOGY REQUIRES AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ANNUAL CYCLES OF GRAPEVINE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSIOLOGY GRAPEVINES ARE VERY TOLERANT OF WATER STRESS GRAPEVINES ARE VERY TOLERANT OF WATER STRESS

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19 NIR SPECTROSCOPY AND WINEMAKING BRIMROSE CORP OF AMERICA Baltimore, Maryland USA

20 What is NIR? Small portion of electromagnetic spectrum ( nm) Small portion of electromagnetic spectrum ( nm) No sample preparation -- direct measurement on bulk sample No sample preparation -- direct measurement on bulk sample Non-destructive Non-destructive CosmicGammaX UV IRMicroUHF ShortMedium Long Ultra violetVisInfrared NearMid= nm Radio

21 What is NIR? Simultaneously measurements for different properties within second(s) Simultaneously measurements for different properties within second(s) Can measure chemical and physical properties Can measure chemical and physical properties Good for all sample types --solids, liquids, powders, slurries, pastes, gels, gases, etc. Good for all sample types --solids, liquids, powders, slurries, pastes, gels, gases, etc.

22 How AOTF Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter scans NIR spectrum Scans extremely rapidly by the very nature of piezoelectric pulsing White light Zero order beam Monochrome light RF MHz

23 Why Acousto Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) Spectrometer? Scanning speed: spectra per second (16,000 wav/sec) Scanning speed: spectra per second (16,000 wav/sec) Solid state, no moving parts Solid state, no moving parts High signal to noise High signal to noise No Wavelength re-calibration required No Wavelength re-calibration required Capability to measure in Ambient light Capability to measure in Ambient light Miniature, robust design Miniature, robust design AOTF Analyzer VS Traditional Scanning Monochromators Scanning speed: 1 spectra per second Scanning speed: 1 spectra per second MANY moving parts MANY moving parts Good signal to noise Good signal to noise Wavelength re-calibration required frequently Wavelength re-calibration required frequently Ambient light can be problem Ambient light can be problem Laboratory based BenchTop design Laboratory based BenchTop design

24 APPLICATION CALIBRATION Collect samples Collect samples Acquire spectra with spectrometer Acquire spectra with spectrometer Test samples to acquire reference data Test samples to acquire reference data Add spectra and reference data to model Add spectra and reference data to model Create prediction program Create prediction program

25 Advantages of AOTF-NIR Analyzers Portable: vineyard and/or cellar Portable: vineyard and/or cellar Ease of use Ease of use Real-time Simultaneous Real-time Simultaneous measurements measurements of different properties of different properties Connectivity with GPS Connectivity with GPS Downloads to computer system via WIRELESS ETHERNET connection automatically Downloads to computer system via WIRELESS ETHERNET connection automatically Economical, year round use Economical, year round use Allows for individual research and calibration Allows for individual research and calibration

26 CURRENT APPLICATIONS FOR RIPENING GRAPES Measures sugar (degrees Brix) Measures sugar (degrees Brix) Measures pH Measures pH Measures titratable acid Measures titratable acid Displays results as a frequency distribution Displays results as a frequency distribution

27 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR RIPENING GRAPES Gross phenolics Gross phenolics Tannins Tannins Anthocyanins/ color Anthocyanins/ color Berry texture, cell wall breakdown Berry texture, cell wall breakdown Fructose/glucose ratio Fructose/glucose ratio Seed hardness Seed hardness

28 Thank you


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