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Rosids – Part 1: Basal Rosids and Eurosids I Spring 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Rosids – Part 1: Basal Rosids and Eurosids I Spring 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rosids – Part 1: Basal Rosids and Eurosids I Spring 2011

2 “Lower” Core tricolpates Rosids (Eurosids II) (Eurosids I) “Basal” rosids Figure 9.3 from the text

3 Rosids – Major Points Has three main groups plus Myrtales is of uncertain placement: - “Basal” Rosids (Vitales, Geraniales) - Eurosid I Clade (Fabids) - Eurosid II Clade (Malvids) Comprises about 25% of all angiosperms Main support for monophyly from molecular data Extreme variation in habit (trees, shrubs, herbs, vines, etc.) as well as extensive proliferation of floral syndromes, including wind, insect, bird, and bat pollination. Transition from apocarpy to syncarpy as seen before; fusion and embellishment of floral parts. BRosids Cary Eurosid 1 Eurosid 2 Asterid 2 Asterid 1

4 Core Eudicots: The Rosids “Basal” Rosids: Order Vitales Eurosids I (Fabids): Order Malpighiales Order Cucurbitales Order Fabales Order Rosales Order Fagales Order Myrtales (uncertain placement) Eurosids II (Malvids): Order Brassicales Order Malvales Order Sapindales

5 Core Eudicots: Rosids “Basal” Rosids: Order Vitales Eurosids I (Fabids): Order Malpighiales Order Cucurbitales Order Fabales Order Rosales Order Fagales Order Myrtales Eurosids II (Malvids): Order Brassicales Order Malvales Order Sapindales Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3 (after spring break!)

6 Core Eudicots: The Rosids Lecture 1 “Basal” Rosids: Order Vitales Vitaceae – Grapes Eurosids I (Fabids): Order Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae – Spurges Violaceae – Violets Salicaceae – Willows and poplars Order Cucurbitales Cucurbitaceae – Cucumbers and squashes Begoniaceae – Begonias Order Fabales Fabaceae – Beans Order Rosales Order Fagales Order Myrtales Eurosids II (Malvids)

7 “Basal” Rosids: Vitales: Vitaceae (The Grape Family) Widely distributed; maximal diversity in tropical regions Lianas (vines) with tendrils oppositely arranged from leaves Diversity: 725 species in 14 genera Flowers: Sepals 4-6, small; petals 4-6; stamens opposite the petals; carpels 2, connate, superior ovary; nectar disk well developed; fruit a berry containing 4 seeds Significant features: Tendrils are modified inflorescences Special uses: grapes (Vitis) form the basis of the wine industry; also table grapes and raisins; some ornamentals Required taxa: Vitis

8 Vitaceae

9 Vitaceae: Vitis -bark without lenticels -pith brown -leaves simple, mostly rounded/cordate -inflorescence cymose, compound -flowers 5-merous -petals separating at the base and falling without expanding as a cap -seeds usually pyriform

10 Eurosids I: Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae (The Spurge Family) Widespread, but most diverse in tropical regions Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines, sometimes succulent; leaves usually alternate Diversity: ca. 6,100 species in 222 genera Flowers: Unisexual; sepals 2-6; petals 0-5; carpels usually 3, ovule 1 per locule; styles usually 3 and each usually divided; inflorescences often highly modified; fruit a schizocarp, seeds usually arillate Significant features: Often with latex/laticifers (toxic) Special uses: rubber (Hevea), cassava/manioc (Manihot), poinsettia (Euphorbia), ornamentals Required taxa: Euphorbia

11 Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia Ca. 2,400 species White latex (usually) One female and few to many male flowers aggregated into a cyathium (false flower or pseudanthium) Cyathium subtended by modified leaves (cyathophylls)

12 Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia cyathium

13 Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis castor bean ~ poisonous seeds Castor oil (Ricinus; extracted from foliage )

14 Euphorbiaceae Rubber (Hevea)

15 Euphorbiaceae Tapioca, Cassava (Manihot) Manihot esculenta cassava, tapioca

16 Euphorbiaceae Tung oil (Aleurites) Aleurites fordii tung-oil tree

17 Eurosids I: Malpighiales: Violaceae (The Violet Family) Widespread, but predominantly herbs of temperate regions Herbs, shrubs, or trees Diversity: 950 species in 22 genera Flowers: Sepals 5; petals 5; modified androecium; carpels usually 3, connate, superior ovary; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule Significant features: Zygomprphy, nectar spurs; floral cleistogamy Special uses: Violets grown primarily as ornamentals Required taxa: Viola

18 Violaceae: modified androecium

19 Violaceae: Viola -mostly herbs, some shrubs -flowers zygomorphic -lower petal spurred -spring flowers open-pollinated, summer flowers remaining closed (cleistogamous)

20 Violaceae: Hybanthus

21 Eurosids I: Malpighiales: Salicaceae (The Willow or Poplar Family) Widespread, from tropical to north temperate and boreal regions Trees or shrubs Diversity: 1,210 species in 58 genera Flowers: bisexual or unisexual; sepals 3-8; petals 3- 8; stamens 2-∞; carpels 2-4, connate, in superior ovary; fruit variable Significant features: leaves simple, teeth salicoid; salicin in most; includes what was formerly called the “Flacourtiaceae” Special uses: lumber, shade trees, ornamentals Required taxa: Populus, Salix

22 Salicaceae: Salix -bud scale single -catkins usually erect or ascending -flowers unisexual -each flower with 1-4 basal nectar glands -stamens 1-12

23 Salicaceae: Populus -bud scales several, overlapping -catkins arching or drooping -each flower with a basal cup-like disk -stamens 8-numerous

24 Eurosids I: Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae (The Cucumber or Squash Family) Widespread in the tropics and subtropics, a few in temperate regions Herbaceous or soft woody vines with scabrous stems and leaves and usually with tendrils Diversity: 825 species in 118 genera Flowers: hypanthium present; sepals & petals 5, usually connate; stamens 3-5; carpels usually 3; ovary half-inferior or inferior; fruit a berry (with hardened rind a pepo); seeds flattened, the seed coat with several layers Significant features: wide range of floral diversity, “toothed” leaves lacking stipules Special uses: cucumbers (Cucumis), pumpkins, gourds, and squashes (Cucurbita), watermelons (Citrullus) etc. are eaten for fruits and seeds; Luffa, some ornamentals Required taxa: family only

25 Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita -trailing herbs -leaves large, cordate- angled or lobed -flowers large, solitary in axils -corolla campanulate, deeply 5-lobed -ovaries and fruits smooth or hairy, not prickly -fruits large, with a firm rind -gourds, squashes, pumpkin

26 Eurosids I: Cucurbitales: Begoniaceae (The Begonia Family) Widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics Herbs or soft woody shrubs Diversity: 920 in 2 genera Flowers: Unisexual; tepals petaloid, 2-10 but usually 4 in 2 whorls (staminate) and 5 in 1 whorl (pistillate); carpels usually 3, connate; inferior ovary; fruit a loculicidal capsule, usually winged Significant features: Soft herbs, typically of shaded habitats; stigmas elongated, twisted, yellow, papillose Special uses: primarily ornamentals Required taxa: Begonia

27 Begoniaceae: Begonia Staminate Flowers Carpellate Flowers -winged ovaries

28 Eurosids I: Fabales: Fabaceae (The Legume Family) Nearly cosmopolitan Herbs, vines, trees, shrubs with usually alternate, pinnately to palmately compound leaves Diversity: 18,000 species in 630 genera – THIRD LARGEST FAMILY of angiosperms Flowers: a short, cup-like hypanthium present; sepals & petals usually 5, more commonly connate; petals all alike or the uppermost 1 differentiated (banner), the lower 2 forming a keel or flaring apart; stamens usually 10, if connate then monadelphous or diadelphous; carpel 1, on a short stalk (gynophore); fruit is a legume (Duh!) but sometimes modified Significant features: High nitrogen metabolism w/ unusual amino acids, often with root nodules with N-fixing bacteria; leaf and leaflet pulvinuses well developed; endosperm often lacking; wide range of floral diversity; 3 subfamilies but 1 is not monophyletic Special uses: Many!! Beans, peas, peanuts, soybean, clover, ornamentals (Mimosa, Bauhinia); lumber, dyes, resins Required taxa: Glycine, Trifolium, Mimosa, Cercis, Gleditsia

29 Fabaceae vegetative characters root nodules pulvinus pinnately to palmately compound leaves

30 Fabaceae floral characters Diadelphous stamens: 9 + 1 Parietal placentation Perigynous flower, short hypanthium

31 Fabaceae fruit and seed characters non-endospermous seeds legumes, loments, etc.

32 Table 9.2 from the text: Subfamilies of Fabaceae

33 Fabaceae: Mimosoideae Actinomorphic tubular flowers in heads many stamens, not fused Albizia julibrissin mimosa, silktree

34 Fabaceae: Mimosoideae: Mimosa -woody or herbaceous -often armed (with prickles) -leafstalk without glands -flowers in heads or rarely racemes or spikes -stamens 10 or fewer -fruits

35 Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae Senna obtusifolia sicklepod pulvinus Stamens not fused -10 or fewer zygomorphic flower

36 Fabaceae: “Cesalpinoideae”: Cercis Cercis canadensis - redbud -unarmed -leaves simple, palmately veined -flowers clustered, appearing before leaves -corolla rose to pink-purple

37 Fabaceae: “Caesalpinioideae”: Gleditsia -armed (with thorns) -leaves 1- or 2-pinnate -flowers small, unisexual or bisexual -staminate inflorescences catkin-like, pendent -fertile inflorescences with bisexual or carpellate flowers Honey locust

38 Fabaceae: Faboideae Crotalaria spectabilis showy rattlebox bacterial root nodule monadelphous stamens or more commonly diadelphous stamens Petals unequal: banner wings keel

39 Fabaceae: Faboideae Crotalaria spectabilis showy rattlebox Petals unequal: banner wings keel

40 Fabaceae: Faboideae: Glycine -leaves pinnately 3-foliolate -inflorescence a raceme -stamens diadelphous -seeds few per pod

41 Fabaceae: Faboideae: Trifolium -leaves palmately (or pinnately) foliolate with usually 3 leaflets -inflorescences racemose but often appearing head-like -stamens diadelphous -fruits enclosed by the persistent corolla -seeds 1-6 per pod

42 Next time: More Eurosids…

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