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L8-S1 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU -- CmpE Database Design Dr. M.E. Fayad, Professor Computer Engineering Department, Room #283I College of Engineering San José State University One Washington Square San José, CA 95192-0180 http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/~fayad

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L8-S2 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad 2 Lesson 08: Datalog Queries

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L8-S3 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Lesson Objectives 3 Understand datalog langauge Learn about: î Syntax of Datalog Rules î Datalog with Sets î Datalog with Abstract Data Types î Semantics î Recursive Datalog Queries

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L8-S4 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Datalog is a rule-based language that is related to Prolog Each rule is a statement has some points that belong to some relations and other points must belong to a defined relation. Each Datalog query contains a Datalog program and an input database. 4 Datalog

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L8-S5 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Datalog query – a finite set of rules of the form: R 0 (x 1,…,x k ) :– R 1 (x 1,1,…, x 1,k 1 ),..., R n (x n,1,…, x n,k n ) where each R i is either an input or a defined relation name. including built-in relations such as +(x,y,z) which means x + y = z. (We normally use the latter syntax.) The preceding rule is read “R 0 is true if R 1 and.. and R n are all true. head of the rule – R 0 body of the rule – R 1,…,R n 5 Datalog Queries: Syntax

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L8-S6 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad [4.1.1] See Taxrecord and Taxtable (Page 8) Find the SSN and the tax. Tax_Due(s, t) :– Taxrecord(s, w, i, c), Taxtable(inc, t), w+i+c = inc. Requires one rule where Taxrecord and Taxtable are input database relations and Tax_Due is the only defined relation. 6 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (1)

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L8-S7 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad [4.1.2] Suppose that relation Street (n, x, y) contains all combinations of street name n and locations (x, y) such that a location belongs to the street. Find the streets that can be reached from (x 0,y 0 ). Reach(n) :– Street(n, x 0, y 0 ). -- Rule 1 This rule says that street n is reachable if it contains the initial point. Reach(n) :– Reach(m), Street(m, x, y), Street(n, x, y). – Rule 2 This rule says that if m is reachable and m and n intersect on some point, than n is also reachable. 7 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (2)

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L8-S8 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad [4.1.3] Find the time to travel from x to y. Travel(x, y, t) :– Go(x, 0, y, t). Travel(x, y, t) :– Travel(x, z, t 2 ), Go(z, t 2, y, t). The head defines the travel(x, y, t) relation, which is true if it is possible to travel from city x to city y in time t. 8 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (3)

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L8-S9 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad [4.1.8] Find town points covered by a radio station or find every place in town that can e reached by at least one broadcast station. A kind of “map overlay problem” In this kind of problems, the scales and the points of the maps to be overlayed are not the same. Suppose that a relation Parameters(ID, Scale, X 0, Y 0 ) records for each map it scale and point of origin. 9 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (4)

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L8-S10 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Suppose a town map where each point corresponds to a half kilometer, and in the broadcast map each point corresponds to a kilometer and the points of origin are the same for both maps. Then (1, 1, 0, 0), (2, 1, 0, 0), (3, 1, 0, 0), and (San Jose, 0.5, 0, 0) would be parameters relation. 10 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (4)

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L8-S11 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad We can find the points in town that are covered using the following query Covered(x 2, y 2 ) :– Broadcast(n, x, y), Town(t, x 2, y 2 ), Parameters(n, s, blat, blong), Parameters(t, s 2, tlat, tlong), x 2 = s/ s 2 x + (tlat – blat), y 2 = s/ s 2 y + (tlong – blong). This query at first scales up and shift every point (x, y) in the broadcast map n to match the scale and point of the town map. If it corresponds to a point (x 2, y 2 ) in the town map, then it is added to relation Covered. 11 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (4)

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L8-S12 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad 12 Datalog Queries: Syntax – Example (4)

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L8-S13 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad We think of the domain of each attribute is a set. We can represent an undirected graph in two relations: Vertices and Edge (X 1, X 2 ) that contains a pair of singleton sets of city names iff there is an edge between them. For example: Edge ({San Jose}, {San Francisco}) would be one tuple in the Edge relation. 13 Datalog with Sets (1)

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L8-S14 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Hamiltonian Cycle in An Undirected graph is a path that starts and ends with the same vertex and goes through each vertex exactly once. Assume Start (X) is an input relation where X is a singleton set containing the name of starting vertex of the cycle. Find a Hamiltonian Cycle where a set of vertices A not yet visited. 14 Datalog with Sets (2)

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L8-S15 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Example: Hamiltonian Cycle Input: Vertices(S) where S is a set of vertices Edge ({c 1 }, {c 2 }) if there is an edge from c 1 to c 2 Start({c}) where c is start city name Output: Path ({c}, B) if there is a path from c that uses all vertices except those in B. Hamiltonian ({c}) if there is a Hamiltonian path. 15 Datalog with Sets (3)

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L8-S16 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Base case – Path is a single vertex. All vertices except the start vertex is unvisited. Path(X 1, B) :– Vertices(A), Start(X 1 ), B = A \ X 1. Recursion – a path to X 1 with B unvisited exists if there is Path(X 1, B) : – Path(X 2, A), a path to X 2 with A unvisited Edge(X 2, X 1 ), and an edge from X 2 to X 1, X 1 A, which is unvisited, and B = A \ X 1. B is A minus X 1 16 Datalog with Sets (4)

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L8-S17 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad If there is a path from start to X 2 that visits all vertices and an edge from X 2 to start, then there is a Hamiltonian cycle. Hamiltonian(X 1 ) :– Path(X 2, ), Edge(X 2, X 1 ), Start(X 1 ). 17 Datalog with Sets (5)

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L8-S18 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad The domain of each abstract data type ranges over some set S. For example, in the Street example, the Extend attribute was an abstract data type that ranged over sets of points in the plane over R 2 where R is the set of real numbers. With each abstract data type only certain operations are allowed and can be used with the query. 18 Datalog with Abstract Data Types (1)

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L8-S19 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad For an abstract data type that ranges over points in the plane, all the basic set operations can be allowed: –equality (=) –containment –intersection –union U 19 Datalog with Abstract Data Types (2)

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L8-S20 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Example: Streets(Name, Extent) where extent is a set of 2D points. Let (x 0, y 0 ) be a start location. Express the reach relation: Reach(n) :– Street(n, Extent), {( x 0,y 0 )} Extent. Reach(n) :– Reach(m), Street(m, S 1 ), Street(n, S 2 ), S 1 S 2 20 Datalog with Abstract Data Types (3)

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L8-S21 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Rule instantiation – substitution of variables by constants ⊢ Q,I R(a 1,…..a k ) – R(a 1,….a k ) has a proof using query Q and input database I, iff R represents input relation r and (a 1,….a k ) r, or There is some rule and instantiation R(a 1,…,a k ):–R 1 (a 1,1,…,a 1,k 1 ),…, R n (a n,1,…, a n, k n ). where ⊢ Q,I R i (a i,1, …,a i,k i ) for each 1 i n. 21 Semantics (1)

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L8-S22 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Reach(Vine) Reach(Vine) :– Street(Vine, 5, 2). -- from point (5, 2) Reach(Bear) Reach(Bear) :– Reach(Vine), Street(Vine, 5, 12), Street(Bear, 5, 12). -- (5, 12) is the intersection point Reach(Hare) Reach(Hare) :– Reach(Bear), Street(Bear, 8, 13), Street(Hare, 8, 13). 22 Semantics: Example (1)

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L8-S23 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Example: By the input database (Figure 1.2): Go(Omaha, 0, Lincoln, 60) Go(Lincoln, 60, Kansas_City, 210) Go(Kansas_City, 210, Des_Moines, 390) Go(Des_Moines, 390, Chicago, 990) We also have: Travel(Omaha, Lincoln, 60) Travel(Omaha, Lincoln, 60):- Go(Omaha, 0, Lincoln, 60) Travel(Omaha, Kansas_City, 210) Travel(Omaha,Kansas_City,210):- Travel(Omaha,Lincoln,60), Go(Lincoln,60,Kansas_City,210). 23 Semantics: Example (2)

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L8-S24 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad 24 Proof Trees (1)

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L8-S25 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad Proof-based semantics – derived relations are the set of tuples that can be proven. Fixed point semantics – an interpretation of the derived relations such that nothing new can be proven. Least fixed point semantics – smallest possible FP semantics. Proof-based semantics = Least fixed point semantics 25 Proof Trees (2)

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L8-S26 Datalog Queries 2003 SJSU – CmpE --- M.E. Fayad T/F 1.Datalog is an extension of SQL. 2.Datalog is a rule-based language and it is related to Prolog. 3.A fact is the same thing as a tuple in a relation or a row in an SQL table. 4.A rule is a way to derive new facts, that is, a rule is (part of) a query. 5.Datalog is more powerful than SQL3 since it permits a more general form of recursion. Discuss: Since we can do selection, projection, and join in Datalog just like in SQL and relational algebra, is there any difference among the three? 26 Discussion Questions

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