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Lesson 3 Introduction to Wine The unique geographic beverage of the World
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine Lesson Overview 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The production of wine 3.3 Producing alcohol from grapes 3.4. The components and flavours of wine 3.5 The main stages of wine production 3.6 Labelling 3.7 Tasting wine 3.8 Sparkling wine 3.9 Wine and food 3.10 Storing wine Summary / Conclusion References
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine Aims and Learning Outcomes of the Lesson On completion of this lesson the learner will be expected to be able to; Explain the major factors which influence the production of all wines Describe the classification, main stages of production, labelling and appellations systems used in wine making. Recommend wines to ideally pair with all foods. Outline best practice techniques to taste, talk about and correctly store wines.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.1 Introduction Wine in the bar today is extremely dynamic; the market has undergone huge growth since the early 1990s. Wine is now an everyday commodity enjoyed by many people regardless of their social status. Although wine education is now widely available the majority of bar and hospitality staff have a limited but growing knowledge of wine. The major reason for the bartender to share the knowledge of the sommelier is the current change of lifestyle, fashion, health and lifestyle choices are helping to change drinking habits. Wine and its story are unique, civilised consumption of this beverage have helped to promote it’s positive aspects, people might be drinking less but they are insisting on a better quality of wine.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.1 Introduction (continued) [ History and Evolution of Wine ] Wine takes its name from the old English word win, which is pronounced wean, which in turn is based on the Latin word vinum. The European Union define wine as a ‘product obtained exclusively from the total or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not crushed, or of grape must” (CR No 822/ 87). The ancient world: earliest piece of solid evidence is a wine stain found in Iran on a Persian amphora dated around 3500BC, earliest mention around the Mediterranean is around 1500BC by the Greeks & Phoenicians who colonized this whole region, the Romans domesticated it and extended its growth throughout Europe, from 5th century they left the foundations for the famous French vineyards of the modern world. The middle ages: the medieval period rises, the Church was repository of skills of civilization in the dark ages, monks understood that the slopes of hills, were better locations for vineyards, they developed the art of selecting the vine Stock to suit the ground conditions, (the greatest oenologist Benedictine Monk Dom Perignon although blind while based at Haut Villiers Abbey perfects (Champagne) luxurious, the aristocracy would beg for it in this period. Cultivation of the Vine helps to provide sustainable economic stability for many countries. 17th century onwards : Change in tastes chocolate (Central America), coffee (Arabia) tea (China), These new beverages all challenged wine and it needed change. The drive for quality and innovation in wine begins and into the 20th century and with the advances brought about through the industrial revolution and scientific discoveries wine flourishes Louis Pasteur – pasteurisation.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.2 The Production of Wine Wine growing areas: Vines grow in two bands North and South of the equator between the degrees latitude bands which usually contain a moderate temperature climate. Wine production: two thirds of all wines are grown in Europe, one third are grown in the New World (Chile, Argentina, Australia, South Africa, United States and New Zealand). The climate, soil, grape, viticulture, vinification, luck of the year all contribute to what you get in the glass Climate: all vines require an average annual temperature ranging from 10 to 14 degrees Celsius, sufficient moisture either in the form of rainfall or through irrigation and an average of seven hours of sunshine daily during the ripening period. Soil: the deeper the roots go, into the soil the more constant is their environment, therefore they are less subject to the ravages of floods or drought. Vines with roots for example 300 metres down gain potassium and iron, which gives great complexity and quality to the wine. Grape: Vitis Vinifera (V.V) vine produces 3,000 noble grape varieties. V.V is the only vine variety allowed to produce wines, which are sold in the E.U. Major red and white grape varieties (Chapter 3 – pp ) Viticulture: the wine-makers practices (i.e. crops less than 8 years old are usually not used), less quality Vinification: both red and white grapes are used to make wines. The juice of grapes will yield juice that is relatively without much colour Luck of the Year: Hallstorms - may rip the young shoots apart or even destroy the vines and reduce the yield. Strong winds, particularly during the flowering season, when the pollen to be taken by insects from flower to flower or by light winds for fertilisation, can be blown away in a gale and the grapes may not form. Rainfall, can improve to be a blessing or a curse to the wine-maker. During summer, light rainfall is desired but if heavy rains come during the autumn months near harvest, this tends to dilute the concentration of flavours (for example in 1984 and 1987 in France).
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.3 Producing Alcohol from Grapes The grape contains everything required for making alcohol either inside or on the skin. Once the skin is broken (the grapes are crushed) the natural yeasts on the outside of the skin come into contact with the natural sugars in the juice. A chemical reaction known as fermentation takes place, this breaks down the natural sugars to form alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. This chemical reaction (fermentation) can continue until (a) the strength of the alcohol reaches 16%, (b) until all the sugars are used up, or (c) fermentation is stopped by lowering the temperature or removing (Filtering) the yeasts out. At 16% the yeasts will normally die. The alcohol composition for wine: 0 – 0.05% alcohol free (forbidden, goes against the definition of wine). 0.05% -.5% de-alcoholized.5% - 1.2% low alcohol 1.2% - 5.5% reduced alcohol When do you obtain wine? : when between 8-15% ABV is reached this is still wine confirmed. Some countries allow alcohol contents to go higher (i.e. Greece, Southern Italy: 16.5%ABV). Vines must be at least 3 ½ years to make wine from them in the E.U.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.3 Producing Alcohol from Grapes [ Classification of Wines ] Wines are traditionally classified as follows; Red, white or rose Dry, medium-dry or sweet Light, medium or full-bodied Fortified, fortified and aromatised or natural table wines Still or sparkling. Wine can be described using its combined characteristics. Using the above major classifications, we can consider the elements of colour, sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide and flavour contents individually in wine; colour: wines generally come in three colours: white, rose (pink, blush) and red. sugar content: Wines vary in the amount of sugar remaining in the wine after the fermentation stops. alcohol content: Table wines are lower than 15% abv. Fortified are still wines which have had their alcohol, increased usually by adding grape brandy or neutral spirit which ranges between 16 to 21% abv. carbon dioxide content: still or sparkling wines. Still wines go through the formal fermentation process and they are not sparkling or effervescent. Sparkling wines go through two separate fermentations. Since the secondary fermentation takes place within an enclosed container, the carbon dioxide gas dissolves in the wine creating an effervescent or bubbly wine. flavour addition: wines may also have flavours incorporated into them through the addition of extracts of aromatic herbs and spices or by macerating these in the wines. These wines are also usually fortified to increase the alcoholic content and thus are described as fortified and aromatised wines.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.4 The Chemical Composition and Flavours of Wine The chemical composition and flavours of wine: Scientific analysis has shown that there are some 250 different components in wine. The character and originally of each wine depends on the variation in the proportions of these elements. The main components of wine: Water: 85 to 93% vol of biologically pure water that is drawn directly from the earth by the vines. Ethanol (Alcohol): 7 to 15% vol of ethanol (alcohol), produced by fermenting the grape-sugar. Sugar (Glucose/Fructose): varying amounts of residual sugars depending on the style of wine (0–100 grams/ L) Organic (Fruit) acids: varying amounts of fruit acids like acid 0.1 to 0.5 g/L, tartaric acid 1.0 to 3.0 g/L, malic acid 0.0 to 4.0 g/L, lactic acid 1.0 to 3.0 g/L, succinic acid 0.5 to 1.5 g/L, acetic acid 0.2 to 0.8 g/L Glycerol: 4 to 15 grams/L Aroma components: 1 to 2 grams/L includes carbonyls, acetals, higher alcohols, esters and terpenes Nitrogen compounds: 0.05 to 0.9 grams/L includes amino acids, biogenic amines Phenolics: 0.2 to 1.3 grams/L red, 0.05 to 1.3 grams/L white includes anthocyanins and tannins Minerals: 1.3 to 4.4 grams/L Trace elements: 0.1 to 30 mg/L Vitamins: 250 to 500 mg/L Additives: total sulphur dioxide (50 to 300 mg/L), sorbic acid (0 to 200 mg/L) Carbon Dioxide: 0.1 to 10 grams/L Organic chemicals in wines such as phenolics and anthocyanin gives wines its colour as well as its textural properties while esters, ketones and aldehydes combine to create the aroma so appreciated in wines. Fruit acids provide a foil to the alcohol and sugar in wines, creating what is known as “balance”.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.5 The main stages of wine production
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.5 The main stages of wine production (continued) Destemming and extraction of juice: stalks of grapes are removed (partially or totally depends on style of wine). If stalks are required a crusher-stemmer is used to remove before crushing the grape. Extraction of juice (2 methods): Pressing (for white wines) just enough pressure to draw the juice untainted by pigment from skins. Crushing: larger crusher which tears apart the berries and allows the pigment to colour the juice. Treatment of the must: extracted grape is called must, treated with sulphur dioxide to disinfectant and kill off wild yeasts and micro-organisms. Sulphur dioxide stops wine oxidation (preservative) and micro-biotic activity (stops wine turning to vinegar). Skin contact: leaving the grape skins with must to extract elements of flavour for fruitier wine styles for short period, clear juice is then sent for fermentation (white wines). Maceration: skins are left to macerate with fermenting must, colour and tannin of skins drawn by presence of alcohol darkens the wine and add more tannin. For Rose wines similiar process up to 48 Hours only. Racking and removal of gross lees: after fermentation, solids or sediments (called gross lees) are removed (dead yeast, pips, pieces of grape skin). Racking is a method used to clarify the wine by transferring wine from one vat or cask into another, leaving behind any solids. Adding to yeast and alcoholic fermentation: Yeast is added to convert the natural sugars in must into alcohol and Co2. Yeast will stop working at 15% abv, any sugar remaining is termed ‘residual sugar’, the higher the residual sugar the sweeter the wine. Malo-lactic fermentation (bacterial conversion): Lactic acid bacteria present in wine become active as alcoholic fermentation slows down. This converst the harsh tasting malic acids (tart acidity like green apples) into lactic acids (richer softer milk like). Malo-lactic fermentation is an optional activity for white wine production, most red wines grown in warm climtes use malo-lactic fermentation. Fining and cold stabilisation: Fining (process which involves a colloidal matter to coagulate anu solid matter within the wine to ensure clarity (types: small amount if wine mixed with egg whites, Islingclass, Kieselgur and Bentonite – types of powdered clay). Cold stabilisation: removing the substance by filtration responsible for the white crystals found on insides of corks or at the bottom of a very chilled bottle. Blending: Cellar master or wine maker assesses the wines and decides on a blend (cuvee), to create a desirable wine, eliminate possible variations in fruit quality within a vintage or several vintages. Final filtration: to clear unwanted particles ands sediment, done by centrifuges and super fine filters. Some wine makers prefer unfiltered. Bottling: Wine is bottled and a cork is rammed in to form a seal, capsules protect the cork from pests and moulds. Luck of the year: The weather (un-controllable factor), hailstorms can rip young shoots reducing yields, strong winds during flowering season can spoil pollenation for fertilisation and the grapes may for form, rainfall (blessing or curse) – during summer light rainfall is desired, heavy rains during autumn near harvest can dilute the concentration of flavours.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.6 Labelling Labelling: Gives a guarantee and quality level therefore items which must appear on the label are (name of the wine, country of origin, region, alcohol level, bottle contents, classification (AC or Vin de Pay), name of Producer or CO OP. Items which may appear on the label are (vintage or year: wines from other years cannot be introduced, description of the wine, grape variety: if so 85% of this variety must be used, 75% in Australia, e = bottled in accordance with European standards. Health warnings are not allowed in the E.U, only in U.S. Alcohol level for all zones is strictly controlled by EU rules. Vintage: used to describe the year in which grapes of wine were grown and harvested, does not guarantee a quality wine. Varietal vs generic: varietal is a wine made from a specific grape, Generic is a wine made from mixed grapes. Appellations: the evolution of quality in wine making. (Chapter 3 - pp ) 1935: (AOC) Institut National des Appellations d’origine (first mapped appellations) 1940: Louis Larmat Appellation remapped 1960: Italy 1970: Spain 1971: Germany 1980s: Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria, Argentina, New Zealand 1993: Australia. Two Classes or Quality levels exist today in French Wine: 2 upper quality levels are: AOC (1935) and VDQS (1949) 2 lower quality levels are: Vin de Pays (1979) and Vin de Table AOC (1935): started with restricted use of the name Roquefort to cheese made and matured in a certain area, by a certain method, from ewes milk. AOC rules: in wine restrictions are: area, method, grape variety, varieties, maximum crop per hectare, minimum strength. VDQS (1949): In 1949 it was felt that A.C was too restricted (i.e. Chablis) 1949 VDQS was introduced Vin Delimite Qualite Superior = great wine that just missed the A.C cut (sometimes they get upgraded in the future). Covers the same items as AC, but higher yields allowed and more grape varieties used. VDQS only granted after tasting. If not bottled after 6 months, has to be tasted again. Vin de Pays (1979): introduced and started in Langerdoc, Vin de Pays saved the French wine business with better quality and access for all. To upgrade the quality and reduce the quantity of wine being made, maximum yield dropped from 90 to 80, but good makers would only use HA/HL. Lots of grape varieties are being used and great experimentation named in various ways, Vin de Table (table wines): Vin de Pays, Vin de Table. Controlling body INAO all grapes sourced from all over France, 100 hecto litres per Hectare (maximum possible). If over the 100 HL/HA it must be checked and a proportion will be sent for distillation. The more one makes over this figure, the less payment they will receive for it.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.7 Tasting Wine Knowledge of wine can only be acquired with practice which develops a vinous memory some people have a more delicate and sensitive palate than others, but this alone, without training, is less useful than a normal but well trained palate. Tasting and talking about wine (we verbalise what we are thinking) tasting is intelligent drinking wines differ from one another in terms of colour, texture, strength, structure, body and length, as well as smell and their complexity of flavours, a taster takes all these into account (Johnson, 2003) most people are not attuned to what a wine offers, for example they are occupied with conversation, drinking whiskey, gin or vinegar which overwhelms it, a cold or never tuned to differences between mere and fine wine) we smell tastes, rather than tasting them, the real organ of discrimination is the upper nasal cavity smells stir memories, helps your powers of analysis the range of reference available differs between experience tasters and a beginner communicating the sensation of wine is harder than appreciating it taste apart from sweet, sour, salt and bitter every taste term is borrowed from other senses words give identity to sensation, helps to clarify them the most helpful of the great words are used by tasters.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.7 Tasting Wine (continued) In tasting, three of the senses play a primary role: sight (to evaluate the appearance of the wine), smell (to evaluate the flavours of the wine on the nose) and taste (to evaluate the sweetness, acidity and bitterness of the wine on the palate). The sense of touch plays a secondary role when assessing the texture of a wine, especially sparkling wines. It is important that the major senses should be given a free rein to operate to best effect; thus the environment in which the tasting takes place should be as neutral as possible. Taste Senses of the Tongue
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.7 Tasting Wine (continued) Preparation for wine tasting: The Room or Area: lighting should be as natural as possible (daylight is best; failing that fluorescent strip-lighting is the best alternative) a white background against which the wine can be studied (white tasting bench / sheet of plain white paper). the tasters should try to approach the tasting with clean palates free from (cigarettes, food, fizzy drinks), a piece of bread or plain water helps cleanse the palate colds or hay fever affect the ability to smell and taste well location should not be influenced by outside odours or internal odours (tobacco, perfume, aftershave should be avoided) confuse the power of smell no food smells coming from nearby kitchens tasting glasses with residual smells (cardboard, detergent, cloth) these can invalidate a tasting. Smell the glass before you use it and look to see if it is star-bright. The Glass: (ISO International Standards Organisation glass – why this glass? Because it incorporates the following). large enough to allow a tasting measure of wine to be swirled around the sides should slope inwards, in a tulip shape, so that the wines can move freely to release the flavours, to be concentrated at the top for smelling a stem so that the glass can be held without the temperature of the wine being affected, and the colour assessed a separate glass for each wine is best, gives the possibility to return to any wine at your leisure. The Tasting: a tasting notebook for recording your judgements of the wines is useful a systematic approach helps you to make comparisons over long periods with similar wines memory plays an important role in tasting; detailed notes provide the essential support. Preparing the Wines: each wine has its ideal temperature white wines should be served cool, but not cold red wines should be served at room temperature, provided the tasting room is not too warm wines can be decanted before the tasting to (allow them to breathe / separate them from the sediment / to avoid pre-judgement by seeing the label or bottle shape) the order of the wines is crucial for the palate: white & Rose wines (dry before sweet), then red wines (young before old) consuming food with wine: Spanish and Italian wines in isolation taste harsh, but when married with the local cuisine seem more appealing.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.8 Sparkling wine Sparkling wine label terms: Pink Champagne: made by saignee method (removing the must after a very short period of skin contact). Blanc de Blanc: a wine made from only white grapes. Blanc de Noir: white wine made only from black grapes. Cremant: wines with a little less than full sparkling wine pressure, and hence a more ‘creamy’ mousse. Sparkling wines - methods of production: The traditional method: used to produce Champagne, sparkling wines of Loire Valley, Cava from Penedes region if Spain, Limoux and premium New world sparkling wines. First fermentation – to produce wine with crisp & high acidity plus moderate alcohol. Blending (assemblage) – for consistency, the blender may have wines from different grape varieties different vineyards and even different years. Champagne must be produced from base wines of the one year, over 100 different wines from just one vintage can be used. Secondary fermentation: liqueur de triage (sugar, yeast nutrients and a clarifying agent) is added to wine to create the sparkle. Crown cork is added, bottles are laid to rest horizontally, sediment is removed after time. Dosage (sweetness level) is checked and sediment removal losses are compensated. (Further information Chapter 3 – Table 3.1) The transfer method: (used in New World), wine is filtered under pressure at -3c. Entire bottle contents are disgorged into a tank under pressure, filtered in bulk and rebottled into a fresh bottle (this method tries to gain advantages of a second fermentation without the expense). The Tank method (cuve close in France): invented by Eugene Charmont (French), used for inexpensive sparkling wines, secondary fermentation in sealed tank, dry base wine, sugar, yeast nutrients and a clarifying agent is added, sediment is removed by filtration under pressure. No tank method sparkling can be of AC status (French law). The Carbonation method: used for cheap sparkling wine, the Co2 is cyclinder injected, bubbles are large and disappear quickly. Cork: conic cylinder shape about three times the neck size of the bottle. The end in contact with the wine consists of two or three horizontal slices of whole cork, the balance is made up of composition cork.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.9 Wine and Food To match food and wine, assess the power of the food by its similarity in terms of impact on the palate to the wines. Pairing wine with food using the principle grape variety White wine – grape variety Chardonnay: seafood with butter sauce, chicken, pasta with cream sauce, veal, turkey, ham, cheese, gruyeres, Riesling: mild cheese, clams, mussels, Asian dishes, sashimi, ham, pork, lobster newberg, Tandoori chicken, Coquilles St Jacques. Sauvignon Blanc: oysters grilled or poached salmon, seafood salad, Irish stew, ham, chevre, goat cheese and strongly flavoured cheeses, asparagus quiche. Gewürztraminer: spicy dishes, Thai food, curry, smoked salmon, pork and sauerkraut, Muenster, spiced/peppered cheeses, onion tart. Red white - grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon: duck, spicy beef, pate, rabbit, roasts, spicy poultry, cheddar, blue cheese, sausage, kidneys. Pinot Noir: braised chicken, cold duck, rabbit, charcuterie, partridge, roasted turkey, roasted beef, lamb, veal, truffles, and gruyeres. Merlot: braised chicken, cold duck, roasted turkey, roasted beef, lamb, veal, stew, liver, venison, meat casseroles. Shiraz: braised chicken, chilli, goose, meat stew, peppercorn steak, barbequed meat, spicy meats, garlic casserole, and ratatouille. Pairing specific wines and foods within the meal experience: (chapter 3 – pp ).
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine 3.10 Storing Wine Johnson (2004) argues that to buy wine and not look after it properly is equivalent to ‘hanging a masterpiece in a dark corner or not exercising a racehorse, storing wines badly can turn nectar into sludge’. Rationale for wine storage : The majority of bars do not need to stock fine wines and they will therefore feel that investing in the equipment and training to ensure that their wines are stored properly is a waste of time and money. However even quite inexpensive wines can benefit from a year or so in your wine cellar. Corks effect on wine storage : Oxygen has an adverse effect on wine, the wine starts to spoil and go vinegary. This adverse affect is often referred to as the wine being corked, not that there are bits of cork floating in the glass. Corking can also occur when bacteria grows on an improperly sterilised cork. The wine will not be harmful to drink, but you’ll get a whiff of sulphur (rotten egg) when you pull the cork, hence the reason why many wine producers are slowly moving to plastic corks and screw tops. Best practice procedures for storing wine: Good wine storage and cellar organisation can be summarised under the following headings in chapter 3 – pp
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine Summary / Conclusion Wine is now an everyday commodity enjoyed in the bar by many people regardless of their social status. Wine has muscled its way to the bar in recent years. This beverage is the naturally fermented juice of ripe grapes which ideally have been freshly gathered and pressed at or near the place where harvested. Wine is a complex liquid in a constant state of change. The climate, soil, grape, viticulture, vinification and luck of the year are the crucial factors that influence the production of all wines. The three primary senses of sight, smell and taste are used to properly evaluate wines but the environment, glassware and preparation of the wines is also important. Wine can be ideally enjoyed with all types of food due to its unique composition. It is crucial that you increase your wine service and storage standards and adopt best practice procedures to ensure customer satisfaction and to help your wines achieve their full potential in your bar.
Lesson 3: Introduction to Wine References ASI. (1998). ‘Sommelier, Profession of the Future’, Bertani: Italy. Boulton, R.B. Singleton, V.L, Bisson, L.F. and Kunkee, R.E. (1996). ‘Principles and Practices of Winemaking’, Thomson Publishing: UK. Broadbent, M. (2002) Michael Broadbent’s Vintage Wine – fifty years of tasting three centuries of wines, Webster’s Publishers: UK. Clarke, O. (2003) Encyclopedia of Wine, Websters, Time Warner Books: UK. Fielden, C. (2004)’Exploring the World of Wine and Spirits’”, Wine and Spirit Education Trust: London. Johnson, H. (2003) ‘World Atlas of Wine’, 4th edn Chancellor Press, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd: London. Johnson, H. (2004) ‘Pocket Wine Book’, Mitchell Beazley: London. Murphy, J. (2012) Harmonizing Water with Wine, Fine Drinks & Food, March Issue, Licensing World, Jemma Publications Ltd: Dublin. Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management – The Drinks Handbook, Goodfellow Publishing Ltd, Oxford: England. Robinson. J and Johnson, H. (2007) ‘The World Atlas of Wine’ 6th edn, Mitchell Beazley: UK. Sequin, G. (1986) ‘Terroirs and pedology of vine growing’. Experientia, 42, Wine Spectator Magazine (2005) Wine Tasting Methodologies, October 31 st, M. Shanken Communications: New York. Web resources Wine and spirit education trust. Wine television. Wine glassware, equipment, specialist wines. Sommeliers International. Learning about wine. Pocket guide books for wine pronunciations. Epicurean facts and knowledge. Court of Masters Sommeliers. Academy of Food and Wine Service.