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Plant Morphology Michael G. Simpson Plant Structure Terms Used for a specific structure/organ.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Morphology Michael G. Simpson Plant Structure Terms Used for a specific structure/organ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Morphology Michael G. Simpson Plant Structure Terms Used for a specific structure/organ


3 Plant Habit = general form of a plant, encompassing stem duration and branching pattern, development, or texture. Herb - plant with annual above-ground parts Geophyte - perennial herb with rootstock Vine - weak stemmed Liana - woody vine Shrub - woody, multiple stems from base Subshrub - woody just above ground Tree - woody, one trunk

4 Plant Duration = how long a plant lives. Annual- ≤ 1 year Biennial- 2 years Perennial- 3 or more years

5 Plant Habitat = environment where plant lives. Terrestrial Aquatic Submersed Floating Emergent Epiphytic Saxicolous

6 Plant Life Form = structure, life cycle, physiology. Therophyte – annual Geophyte – perennial herb Epiphyte – plant growing on another plant Halophyte – salt-adapted plants Succulent – plant with fleshy leaves or stems Xerophyte – plant living in dry, hot environments

7 Roots Function - absorption, anchorage Structure - rootcap, root hairs, endodermis Adventitious roots - arise from non-root organ Lateral roots - arise from another root (1˚, 2˚, etc.)


9 Root Types/Parts taprootfibrousprophaustorial

10 Root Types/Parts storage roots Raphanus sativus, radish

11 Root Types/Parts buttress roots Ficus rubiginosa, rusty-leaved fig

12 Root Types/Parts pneumatophores Avicennia germinans, black mangrove

13 Root Types/Parts prop roots (also adventitious)

14 Shoot = stem + associated leaves


16 Each leaf primordium develops into one leaf. Caryota sp. Arecaceae ca. 20 feet long!

17 Stem (Shoot) Types areolebulbcaudexcaudiciform stem

18 Stem (Shoot) Types cladodecormculm fascicle/ short shoot rhizome

19 Stem (Shoot) Types scapestolon/runnerthorntiller tendriltuber

20 Stem (Shoot) Types pachycaulpseudobulb

21 Stem Habit =relative position of stem (+ growth, structure) acaulescentcaulescentcespitose prostrate repent arborescentsuffrutescentdecumbent

22 Stem Branching Pattern monopodial dichotomous sympodial

23 Twig Structure collateralsuperposed pseudoterminalnakedinfrapetiolar

24 Leaf Structural Type bract bractlets scale phyllode spine tendril (leaf)unifacial leaf

25 Leaf Structural Type Bract (flower)EpicalyxBud Scale

26 Leaf Structural Type Phyllode - Acacia spp. (Fabaceae)

27 Leaf Structural Type Tendril - Lathyrus (Fabaceae)

28 Leaf Structural Type Stipular Spine - Euphorbia spp. (Euphorbiaceae)

29 Leaf Structural Type Petiolar Spine - Fouquieria splendens Ocotillo (Fouquieriaceae)

30 Leaf Structural Type Leaf Spine (arising from areole) - Cactaceae

31 Sharp things thorn - sharp-pointed stem/shoot (fr. axillary bud) spine - sharp-pointed leaf or leaf part leaf spine (also leaflet spine) stipular spine petiolar spine prickle - sharp pointed epidermal appendage

32 Leaf Structural Type Pitcher Leaf - Nepenthes (Nepenthac.) Sarracenia (Sarraceniac.)

33 Leaf Structural Type Tentacular Leaf - Drosera spp Sundew (Droseraceae)

34 Leaf Structural Type Trap Leaf - Dionaea muscipula Venus Fly Trap (Droseraceae)

35 Leaf Structural Type Dionaea muscipula Venus Fly Trap (Droseraceae)

36 Leaf Structural Type unifacial Iris sp.

37 Seismonasty Mimosa pudica Fabaceae

38 Leaf Type / Parts simple pinnately compound imparipinnate paripinnate bipinnately compound

39 Leaf Type / Parts ternately compound = trifoliolate palmate-ternatepinnate-ternate biternately compound palmately compound

40 Leaf Type / Parts unifoliolate geminate bigeminate geminate-pinnate costa-palmate

41 petiolate sessile sheathingdecurrentamplexicaulperfoliate connate- perfoliate

42 Leaf Venation



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