3Thomas Volney MunsonThe French government : the French Legion of Honor Chevalier du Merite Agricole (1888)Foundations of American Grape Culture (1909), the standard reference for grape culture in the United States.
4Much of the world’s viticulture involves rootstocks (Robert 1976). Scions are usually a Vitis vinifera cultivar.Rootstocks are often North American species or their hybrids.Harvesting grapes (1500BC)
5Rootstocks, YES or NO? YES if do vinifera! Phylloxera—soil-borne pest. Native to North AmericaAnd,Immune: Muscadinia rotundifoliaResistant: V. riparia, berlandieri, and rupestrisSusceptible: V. vinifera
6SCION: The fruiting cultivar above. ROOTSTOCK: The plant forming the root system of a grapevine to which a fruiting cultivar is grafted.SCION: The fruiting cultivar above.GRAFTING: The process to join the rootstock and scion together.Grafting Union
7The Genus Vitis Vitis (from vita=life) About 60 species, mostly Northern Hemisphere, 70% North AmericanV. vinifera: European grapeV. aestivalis: Summer or Pigeon grape or bunch grapeV. labrusca: Fox grapeV. riparia: River bank grapeV. rotundifolia: Muscadine grapeV. amurensis: Amur grape (Manchuria)V. rupestris
9Still Rootstocks? If I do Hybrids or American…… You do NOT have to, but:Other pest resistance: root nematodes.Abiotic tolerance: lime, drought, salt, low temperatures, etc.Vegetative growth.Yield.Fruit and Wine Quality.
10Criteria for Choosing Rootstocks (Reynolds &Wardle, 2001) Phylloxera resistanceNematodes resistanceAdaptability to high pH soilAdaptability to saline soilAdaptability to low pH soilAdaptability to wet/poor drainage soilAdaptability to drought***Pest and Soil***
11Effects on pest and disease resistance Phylloxera (Harmon and Elmer, 1952; Shaulis, 1969; Lider 1993; Mullins 1992.)V. rotundifolia, V. riparia, berlandieri, and rupestris.Riparia Glorie, Mgt, SO4, 5BB, St. George.Nematodes (Harmoon, 1952; Cirami, 1984; Mullis 1992.)V. champini, cinerea, longii.Ramsey, Dog Ridge, Harmony, 1613 C, SO4. etc.Pierce’s disease (Loomis, 1965.)V. champini, V. rotundifolia x V. bourquinianaBarnes, Dog Ridge, and B-45.
12Effects on Abiotic Tolerance Lime toleranceVitis berlandieri and vinifera. 41 B, 333 EM, Fercal.Drought toleranceHybrids of Vitis berlandieri/rupesrtis. 110 R, 140 Ru, P and 99 R.Salt toleranceVitis champini. Ramsey.
14Rootstock Physiology: what do rootstocks do? Not so clear! Direct effectThe root system: root anatomy and morphology, development and distribution—genetics x soil environmentNutrition: mineral uptakeHormonesIndirect effect
15Effects on mineral nutrient and chloride accumulation Use of rootstocks affects mineral ion uptake and distribution. Leaf K+ level was highest on stocks 53 M and SO4, and lowest on 140 R, 420 A. (Cook et al., 1964; Tanggolar et al., 1989; Fardossi et al., 1995, Brancadoro et al, 1995)Cl- accumulation of grape ‘Cardinal’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ scions varied with rootstocks significantly. Vines on and ‘Salt Creek’ roots accumulated extremely low chloride. (Bernstein et al. 1969)
16Effect on cold hardiness: vinifera and hybrid cultivars Canes of grafted ‘White Riesling’ and ‘Chardonnay’ are hardier than ungrafted vines. Rootstock 3309 (over 5BB and SO4) is most desirable in relation to winter survival. (Miller et al. 1988)‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Chardonnay’ showed less frost damage when grafted on 5BB and P1103 than on SO4 and 420A. (Palliotti et al., 1991)Grafted ‘Seyval’ has better cold hardiness of buds than ungrafted proved to be the hardiest rootstock. (Striegler and Howell, 1991)
17Effects on vigorPruning weight and growth rate have been used to express vine vigor.Most selected, pest-resistant rootstocks increase vigor. (Elmer and Harmon, 1935, 1950, 1956; Vaile, Hedberg, 1980; Ferree, 1996; Wounderer, 1999; Lovicu, 1999)In general, vigorous rootstocks produced more wood in the first growing season and increased circumference thereafter than those of weak rootstocks. (Elmer and Harmon, 1948)The species V. champini, berlandieri, rupestris and their hybrids are most vigorous while V. riparia has the least vigor. St George, 99 R, 110 R, etc. are most vigorous. Riparia Gloire and are among the least. (Roriz, 1999)
18Effects on bud break and dormancy ‘Riesling’ and ‘Chardonnay’ deacclimated earlier when grafted on 5BB than when on (Miller et al., 1988)Buds of ‘Anab e Shahi’ broke later on their own roots and Dog Ridge. Rootstock Gulabi sharply shortened the bud dormancy (Prakash, 1990).Tangolar (1989) found that grape buds burst early on rootstock 420 A and Reddy (1990) stated that rootstocks Gulabi and 1613 increased bud “fertility”.
23Effects on Endogenous ABA and GA4 (Dormant buds)
24Effects on photosynthesis, carbohydrates and dry matter partitioning Photosynthetic rate: ‘Muller Thurgau’ had high rate on K5BB and SO4 and low rate on R 140 (Candolfi et al. 1997; Koblet, 1997).‘Riesling’ had higher rate when grafted on K5BB than on its own roots though the stomatal conductance were similar (During, 1994).Cane Carbohydrate levels and the partitioning of dry matter were not affected by rootstocks (Tangolar, 1989; Williams and Smith, 1991).
25Effects on Berries Maturity Berry size, growth rate, weight Cluster size, berries/clusterSugar contents(glucose and frucose), organic acid (tartaric acid, malic acid, amino acids) and K+ contentpHAnthocyanin in skin
26Effects on YieldYield was an important consideration in selection of rootstock (Harmon and Elmer, 1948, 1952; Shaulis, 1969.).Most selected rootstocks increase the yield though the situation relies on scion/rootstock combinations. (Hedberg, 1980; Mullins 1992 ; Lider 1993; Kolbert, 1994; Ezzahouani, 1995; Ferree, 1996; Lovicu, )Yields are not always positively correlated to vegetative growth (Cook and Lloyd ,1964 )
27Effects on Wine Quality Lower malic acid and higher tararic acid concentration if grafted; higher anthocyanin content if non-grafted. (Walker, 1998)‘Chardonnay’ grafted on 5C had desirable wine characteristics– low pH, moderate acidity and good sugar level. (Ewart, 1993)Rootstock SO4 performed better than 5BB, 5C, 41B, Fercal, EM333 and R 140. (Kaserer, 1997)
28Other things to consider … Cost for grafting: $ /ha, depends on do-it-yourself or purchasing;Disease transmitted by grafting: virus;Incompatibility;The ungrafted vines last longer;Special attention to the grafting union, esp. in cold regions;Others you can name…
29What should I do if my vines are un-grafted vinifera? Removing them or replanting them on rootstocks. Phylloxera will get them sooner or later (in Kentucky!)Plant rootstock rootlings adjacent to the vines; wait, graft the trunkInter-planting with 2-year old grafted vines; remove the own-rooted vines when the new planting starts fruiting.If yield loss >10%, think replace the vines with grafted ones immediately.
30How to indicate the vines are affected by phylloxera How to indicate the vines are affected by phylloxera? Especially when you think your vineyard is “free” from phylloxeraTold by stunted growth, not so easy thoughDo 2% of own-rooted vines: every 10th vine in every 5th row is own-rootedPlant some un-grafted rootstocks or American species as indicators: watch for the galls (Vinifera, roots; rootstocks, leaves, for example, “Frantanac”)
31Am I the one to graft? Yes, you can handle it! Bench grafting Greenwood graftingCleft, notch graftingBark graftingSide-whip, wedge graftingField budding…
32Questions and Comments? CONTACT:Dr. Sanjun Gu128 Atwood Research Facility400 East Main StreetKentucky State UniversityFrankfort, KY 40601Phone:Fax:Coming soon! New KSU Viticulture Web……