Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Grand Finale: Dessert and Dessert Wines."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 The Grand Finale: Dessert and Dessert Wines
Chapter 13 Outline Aperitif: Niagara’s Wine Region Dessert Wine Categories Frozen Grape Wines Late Harvested Wines Dried Grape Wines Fortified Wines Dessert Selection and Wine Pairing Dessert Categories Custards Chocolate and Chocolate Desserts Fruit and Fruit-based Desserts Nuts and Nut-based Desserts Baked Goods: Cakes, Cookies, Pastries and Dessert Breads
Chapter 13 Key Concepts Ice Wines VQA Botrytized Wines Noble Rot Ports Sherries Marsala, Madeira, and Muscats Balance and harmony between wine and cheese Beware of excessive levels of sweetness, richness, bitterness, or acidity in desserts The impact of fruit type: Berries, orchard, citrus, tropical, and dried
Niagara’s Wine Region The region is famous for its ice wines. Niagara’s original ice wines were made from German grapes like Riesling and hybrids like Vidal, but as techniques evolved, new varietals were used such as Cabernet Franc and Gewürztraminer. An advantage of planting vines in Canada versus other growing regions is that Canada is guaranteed to have winter temperatures cold enough for successful ice wine production.
The 5 Dessert Wine Categories The five dessert wine categories are: sparkling wines, frozen grape wines, late harvest wines, dried grape wines, and fortified wines.
Frozen Grape Wines The traditional practice is to leave the grapes on the vine until they are frozen; Then the grapes are picked and pressed while still frozen. The majority of grapes used are white. A quality ice wine retains the character of the grape. A good frozen grape wine is a wine that creates a balance between substantial sweetness and brilliant acidity along with a clean finish.
Frozen Grape Wines (2) Some ice wine producers place grapes in the freezer prior to pressing, a process that is referred to as “cryoextraction”. Austria, Germany and Canada do not allow the use of non-natural methods in making ice wine. Frozen wines produced using cryoextraction cannot be labeled as ice wine, and instead must used such terms as: Iced Wine, Vino Gelato, Cryo- Cluster, Frostbite, and Vin de Glaciere.
Late Harvest Wines Leaving the grapes on the vine past the normal harvest period creates grapes that are riper, higher in sugar content, and lower in moisture content. There is no nationwide agreement on label terms for late harvest wines. These grapes may turn into raisins or get attacked by mold.
Late Harvest Wines (2) Grapes attacked by botrytis mold create a pleasant taste described as honeyed or mushroomy. The mold alters the acid balance and create a syrupy-thick texture mouth-feel. Grapes that have thin skins and are in tight grape clusters are more susceptible to the mold. Botrytis mold is most frequently achieved in cool and moderate climates.
Dried Grape Wines Growing regions use a planned “raisining” approach. Grapes are harvested then allowed to dry under controlled conditions. A typical method is to dry the grapes over straw mats or screens, like Italy’s passito wines, Germany’s Strohwein, and France’s vin de paillle.
Dried Grape Wines (2) In the 1950’s, California winemakers Myron and Alice Nightinggale, developed a process to induce the botrytis mold in harvested grapes spread on drying trays. Italian wines recito and amarone are made with grapes that have been dried on racks to intensify their flavor. Not all dried grape wines are sweet, such as Amarone della Valpolicella.
Fortified Wines These wines are strengthened with the addition of wine spirits. Generally, a neutral grape brandy is made by distilling wine to concentrate the level of alcohol. The neutral brandy is added to the wine before the fermentation process is complete. The remaining sugar that has not been changed into alcohol creates a sweet taste in the finished fortified wine.
Fortified Wines (2) The tradition of fortifying wines comes from areas with hot climates The practice originated to preserve the wine while shipping to England. Spain, Italy, and Portugal have a long tradition of producing fortified wines. More recently, New World locations have been making wines modeled after Old World Port, Sherry, Madeira, and Marsala.
Fortified Wines (3) There are 3 major styles of Port: Ruby, Tawny, and Vintage. The 2 basic types of Sherry are: Fino and Oloroso. Other important fortified wines include: Madeira, Marsala, Vermouth, Orange Muscat, Muscat Hamburg, and Málaga.
Similar and Contrasting Characteristics Of Dessert Wine Categories All dessert wines are relatively sweet. Frozen grape wine grapes and late harvest wine grapes are left on the vine longer and have a high sugar content. Both are typically grown in cool and moderate climates In contrast, the tradition of fortified wines comes from hot climates. Late harvest grapes may naturally turn into raisins, get attacked by botrytis mold, or both. Dried grape wines have not been attacked by noble rot –Unless producers choose to induce botrytis mold in harvested grapes.
Similar and Contrasting Characteristics Of Dessert Wine Categories (2) While frozen grapes and late harvest grapes are left on the vine for a considerable amount of time, Grapes for dried grape wines are harvested at the normal time and then dried under controlled conditions. Unlike the other dessert wines, fortified wines are strengthened with the addition of wine spirits. A neutral brandy is added to the wine before the fermentation process is complete.
What Types of Desserts are Easiest to Pair with Dessert Wines? The desserts that are: moderately sweet and have fruit or acidic elements are the best matches for the spectrum of dessert wines. These type desserts create a wine- friendly “canvas” to showcase many opulent dessert wines.
Dessert Elements that Limit Dessert Wine Choices Desserts with excessive bitterness, sweetness, acidity and richness. The mouth-coating and palate-deadening effect of chocolate is typically an issue. If the sugar content in desserts is high then pairing will be problematic. The primary ingredient in each dessert may limit pairing possibilities. Fillings/toppings can also result in pairing challenges.
Wines for Custard-Based Desserts High sweetness levels and fruit: High sweetness levels and fruit: sweet sherry, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, ruby port. High sweetness levels and ingredients other than fruit or other acidic items: High sweetness levels and ingredients other than fruit or other acidic items: dessert wines that have fruity characteristics, such as tropical or orchard fruit flavors. Moderate sweetness levels and fruit: Moderate sweetness levels and fruit: demi- sec sparklers, Asti, sweet sherry, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, ports.
Wines for Custard-Based Desserts (2) Moderate sweetness levels and chocolate: Moderate sweetness levels and chocolate: sweet red wines such as Muscat Hamburg or tawny port, as well as Orange Muscat, sweet sherry, Madeira, Demi-sec (Noir de Noirs) Champagne. Moderate sweetness levels and nuts, toffee, or caramel: Moderate sweetness levels and nuts, toffee, or caramel: Wines that exhibit nut, caramel and toffee attributes. If on the light side, safe bets can include sweet Muscats, Moscato d’Asti, and demi-sec sparklers. If on the heavier side a tawny port, oloroso sherry, or sweet PX sherry fit the bill.
Wines for Chocolate-Based Desserts Dark chocolate desserts and fruit: sweet sherry, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, ruby port. Dark chocolate desserts and other items: wines with fruity characteristics to them should be tried. If just pure dark chocolate, Cabernet Sauvignon or Amarone. Milk chocolate desserts and fruit: sweet red wines, Orange Muscat, sweet dried grape wines, ports. Milk chocolate desserts - no additional ingredients or other items: sweet red wines such as Muscat Hamburg or tawny port, as well as Orange Muscat, sweet sherry, Madeira, Demi-sec (Noir de Noirs) Champagne.
Wine Styles for Chocolate-Based Desserts (2) White chocolate desserts and fruit: If on the light side, sweet Muscats, Moscato d’Asti, and demi-sec sparklers. If on the heavier side, a sweet white port, sweet late harvest (botrytized) wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines. White chocolate desserts with other: berry flavored port, fruit flavored white dessert wine, and sweet sparkling wines. Here again, the matching process can be by similarity or contrasting attributes.
Wine Styles for Fruit-Based Desserts Fruit desserts with citrus: Cool-climate dessert wines with higher acidity are likely candidates, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, Orange Muscat. Fruit desserts with berries: sparkling wines, Beaujolais-Villages (raspberries), or Riesling. If a base for a dessert, sweeter wines are needed: sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, Muscat Hamburg, demi-sec sparkling wine. Fruit desserts with orchard fruits: demi-sec sparklers, Asti, sweet sherry, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, ports.
Wine Styles for Fruit-Based Desserts (2) Fruit desserts with tropical fruits: sweet dessert wines with tropical fruit attributes that usually go well, or contrasting flavors with nutty, dried fruits, and sweet spice flavors, sweet whites (ice wines and late harvest), demi-sec Champagne, Asti. Fruit desserts with dried fruits: pair these fruits with wines flavored with nuts, caramel and complimentary fruit flavors, wines with dried grape character, sweet late harvest (botrytized) wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, tawny port, oloroso sherry, or sweet PX sherry.
Wine Styles for Nut-Based Desserts Just nut desserts: similarity matches: Amontillado and Oloroso Sherries, or botrytized wines aged in oak. Dried fruits and other flavors go well with nuts. Sweet wines include ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, Madeira, Muscats, ruby or tawny port. Nut-based desserts: wines with caramel and dried fruits or other fruity characteristics: Madeira, Marsala, Orange Muscat, Muscat Hamburg, late harvest and botrytized wines sweet dried grape wines, ports and sweet sherry. Nut-based desserts with caramel/toffee: wines that exhibit nutty, caramel and toffee attributes. If light, sweet Muscats, Moscato d’Asti, and demi-sec sparklers. If heavier, tawny port, oloroso sherry, or sweet PX sherry.
Wine Styles for Nut-Based Desserts (2) Nut-based desserts with coffee/mocha as their prominent ingredients: if light and low on sugar level, dryer wines can be used: Champagne (brut or extra dry), or Pinot Noir. A second method is to select wines that have characteristics matching what we like to add to a cup of coffee: cream, sugar, flavored syrups. Try any of the following: Asti, sweet sherry, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, ports.
Wine Styles for Baked Goods Cakes filled/topped with vanilla, butter and citrus flavors: Cakes filled/topped with vanilla, butter and citrus flavors: cooler climate late harvest wines, ice wines, and sweet sparkling wines such as Moscato d’Asti. Cakes with richer items (chocolate, coffee) or sweet spices: Cakes with richer items (chocolate, coffee) or sweet spices: botrytized wines, demi-sec sparklers, sweet sherry, sweet dried grape wines, port and Madeira. Cookies: Cookies: demi-sec sparklers, Asti, sweet sherry, sweet late harvest wines, ice wines, sweet dried grape wines, ports.
Wine Styles for Baked Goods (2) Pastries: Pastries: any of the dessert wines discussed. Classic matches - profiteroles and Orange Muscat, mille feuilles and sweet sparkling wine, biscotti and Moscato passito. Desserts breads: Desserts breads: almost always flavored with other strong flavoring (rum, nuts, dried fruits, custard). Wines that exhibit complimentary attributes are good candidates. Dessert breads with dried fruits Dessert breads with dried fruits (raisins, figs, dates) work with Oloroso, Tawny Port, Madeira and Marsala. Other Other possibilities for dessert breads include late harvest wines, dried grape wines, Orange Muscat or Muscat Hamburg.
Frozen Grape ExamplesLocationGrape(s) Typical Producers Canada: Niagara, Okanagan Vidal, Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Franc Chateau des Charmes (ON), Gehringer Brothers Estate (OK), Henry of Pelham (ON), Inniskillin (ON & OK), Jackson-Triggs (ON & OK), Kittling Ridge (ON), Pillitteri (ON), Reif Estates (ON). Pacific Northwest: Washington, Oregon and Idaho Chenin Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir Argyle (OR), Chateau Ste. Michelle (WA), Covey Run (WA), King Estate (OR), Kiona (WA), L'Ecole No. 41 (WA), Ponzi Vineyards (OR), Preston (WA), Sawtooth Winery (ID), Terra Blanca (WA).
Dried Grape Examples Location & Type Primary Grapes Characteristics Cotes du Jura, France Wine and Type: vin de paille Jura - Chardonnay and Savagnin Honeyed flavors, sweet, medium-bodied, dried exotic fruits and balanced acidity Samos, Greece Wine and Type: Samos Nectar, dessert wine MuscatSweet with balanced acidity and alcohol, complex with interesting flavors
Food and Wine Sweetness Rule Rule #1: Food sweetness level should be less than or equal to wine sweetness level. This does not rule out serving sweet wines with savory foods creating a contrasting match. In some cases, wines that are less sweet than the food item can be made – if the wine is fruit-forward and lower in acidity, occasionally, some surprising combinations can be made.
Classic Examples: Sauternes and Foie Gras Vintage Port and Stilton Cheese Can you think of other combinations that might work?
Interesting Contrasts Try matching a fatty fish such as salmon or tuna with a medium to full-bodied white wine Tokaji Aszu. The richness match is similar to the classic Sauternes and Foie Gras with a salty/sweet contrast.
Demi-sec Sparkling Wines Sparkling wines and Champagne with this sweetness level can be successfully matched with: Duck and goose (particularly with sweet characteristics in an accompanying sauce/glaze). Ham – that salty/sweet combination! Also – consommé, cream soups and lobster bisque.
Semi-sweet to Sweet Rosé Wines What to serve with a winter squash or pumpkin soup? Try a white Zinfandel. Egg dishes such as Eggs Benedict, quiche and omelets can be paired with semi- sweet and sweet rosé wines.
Fortified Dessert Wines Try sweet fortified wines such as Black Muscat, Cream Sherry, Marsala, Málaga and Orange Muscat with: Eggs Omelets Quiches Custards
Additional Reading Immer, A. (2002). Great Tastes Made Simple: Extraordinary Food and Wine Pairing for Every Palate. New York: Broadway Books. Kolpan, S., Smith, B.H. & Weiss, M.A. (2001). Exploring Wine, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Maresca, T. (1990). The Right Wine: Matching Wine with Food for Every Occasion. New York: Grove Press.