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ID of Prevalent Invasive Vines In Southern Forests James H. Miller Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service Auburn University, Alabama And Nancy Loewenstein.

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Presentation on theme: "ID of Prevalent Invasive Vines In Southern Forests James H. Miller Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service Auburn University, Alabama And Nancy Loewenstein."— Presentation transcript:

1 ID of Prevalent Invasive Vines In Southern Forests James H. Miller Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service Auburn University, Alabama And Nancy Loewenstein School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences Auburn University, Alabama

2 Oriental Bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 0.1 – 0.5 0.6 – 1.5 1.6 – 2.5 2.6 – 4.5

3 Oriental Bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus Oriental Bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus Found mainly along forest edges Somewhat shade- tolerant Colonizes by prolific vine growth and seedlings Seeds dispersed by birds, animals and humans

4 Oriental Bittersweet Oriental Bittersweet Introduced 1736 Plant: Deciduous, twining and climbing woody vine to 60 ft long or high in tree crowns, forming thickets and arbor infestations. Resembles: American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens). Woody vines in winter resemble grape vines (Vitis spp.).

5 Oriental Bittersweet Oriental Bittersweet Leaves: Alternate, variable shaped Small and long-tapering tipped when young Larger and round tipped when mature 1-5 in long and wide, base tapering into petiole petioles 0.5-1 in long margins finely blunt toothed dark green becoming yellow in late-summer to fall, deciduous

6 Flowers: Blooms in May Numerous tiny-branched axillary clusters, each with 3-7 inconspicuous cream- yellowish orange flowers, with 5 petals each

7 Oriental Bittersweet Oriental Bittersweet Fruit and Seeds: August-January Green spherical capsules, about 0.5 diameter Tipped with a persistent pistil, becoming yellow-orange to tan, splitting and folding upward to reveal 3 fleshy scarlet sections in winter, each section contains 2 white seeds note: species is dioecious … only the female plants have fruit

8 Oriental Bittersweet Oriental Bittersweet Stem: Woody vine up to 4 in diameter Twining and arbor forming Many alternate branches growing at angles becoming straight Olive drab with many raised whitish-corky dots (lenticels) becoming tan to gray Branch scars of fruit clusters semicircular with a tiny corky shelf projection

9 Native bittersweet Celastrus scandens Flowers and fruit at shoot terminal

10 Climbing Yams Dioscorea spp. Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 < 1 1.0 - 3 3.1 - 5 5.1 - 10 10.1 - 20

11 Climbing Yams Fast growing - can cover small trees within a year Semi-shade tolerant Prefers N-rich soil Spread by underground tubers and aerial yams (‘bulbils’) Invades riparian corridors, forest edges, rich woods, fence rows … Native yam looks similar but does not have bulbils

12 Plants: Herbaceous, high- climbing vines to 65 ft long, infestations covering shrubs and trees (native yam species will not), twining stems with long-petioled, heart-shaped leaves and dangling potato- like tubers (bulbils). Air yam Dioscorea bulbifera Air yam Dioscorea bulbifera Water Yam D. alata Water Yam D. alata Chinese Yam D. oppositifolia Chinese Yam D. oppositifolia AirYam Synonym: air potato Resembles: native yam, Smilax spp. Chinese Yam Yam

13 Climbing Yams ChineseYam AirYam Leaves: Alternate (air yam) or combination of alternate and opposite (Chinese and water yam) Long heart-shaped to triangular shape, 4-8 in long, 2-6 in wide, with long petioles Glabrous and thin Basal lobes broadly rounded (air yam) or often angled (Chinese and water yam); tips elongated Margins entire Veins parallel and converging at base Dark green with slightly indented veins above and lighter green beneath

14 Climbing Yams Fruit and seeds: June-Sept (and year-round) Capsules with winged seeds, questionable viability; aerial tubers (bulbils) are most notable, miniature potatoes, 1-4 in, in axils Surfaces smooth (air and Chinese yam) to rough (water yam), spherical (air and Chinese yam) to oblong (water yam) Air yam to 5 in diameter, Chinese yam to 1 in diameter, and water yam to 1 in diameter and 4 in long Air Yam Water Yam Chinese yam


16 Air yam

17 Water yam  “winged” stem

18 Native yam D. villosa D. villosa Often a whorl of leaves and flowers

19 Winter Creeper Euonymus fortunei Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 < 2 2 - 5 5.1 - 10 10.1 - 15 15.1 - 20

20 Winter Creeper Euonymus fortunei Winter Creeper Euonymus fortunei Introduced 1907  Forms dense ground cover and can climb and overtop trees  Shade tolerant  Spreads by trailing and climbing vines that root at nodes.  Seeds dispersed by birds, animals and water

21 Winter Creeper Winter Creeper Plant: Evergreen, woody vine climbing to 40-70 ft high Can form dense ground cover or a shrub to 3 ft height Resembles: vinca, asiatic jasmine (Trachelospermum asiaticum), possibly blueberry (Vaccinium spp) or rusty blackhaw (Viburnum rufidulum) Synonyms: Climbing euonymus, gaity

22 Winter Creeper Winter Creeper Leaves: Opposite, evergreen leaves, broadly oval (egg-shaped) Margins finely crenate and somewhat turned under to wavy, bases tapering towards the short petioles Moderately thick, smooth and glossy, 1-2.5 in long, 1-2 in wide (variable) Blades dark green with whitish veins (or variegated above and light green below) Morphology of juvenile and mature leaves differ Species mutates easily and there are many, many cultivars, so leaf shapes may be variable

23 Winter Creeper Winter Creeper Fruit and seeds: September-November Dangling pairs (or single) of pinkish to red capsules, 0.2-0.4 long, splitting open to reveal a orange to red fleshy covered seed.

24 Winter Creeper Winter Creeper Stem: Twigs stout, lime green, and hairless becoming increasingly dusted and streaked with light gray- reddish corky bark Opposite buds brown and sharp Protruding aerial roots underneath or along surfaces Branches opposite, scars jutting and containing a light semicircle Leaf scars thin upturned white crescents

25 Strawberry bush or hearts a-bustin’ Euonymus americanus

26 English Ivy Hedera helix Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 0.1 – 0.5 0.6 – 1.0 1.1 – 1.5 1.6 – 2.0 2.1 – 6.0

27 English Ivy Hedera helix English Ivy Hedera helix Introduced in colonial times Thrives in moist, open forests Shade tolerant, but can adapt to high light levels Reservoir for bacterial leaf scorch of oaks, elm and maples Spreads by bird-dispersed seeds and colonizes by trailing and climbing vines that root at the internodes Toxic to humans when eaten, dermatitis on sensitive individuals

28 English Ivy Plant: Evergreen woody climbing vine to 90 feet by clinging aerial roots and trailing to form dense ground cover. Resembles: grape (Vitis spp), coralbeads (Cocculus carolnus) yellow passionflower (Passiflora lutea), possibly wild cucumber (Melothria pendula)


30 English Ivy Leaves: Alternate, varing with age: juvenile plants - 3 to 5 pointed lobes mature plants – broadly lanceolate and unlobed 4 in long, 3-5 in wide Thick, wavy smooth and hairless Dark green with whitish veins, pale green underneath Petioles 6 in long, pale green often reddish tinged

31 English Ivy Stems: Slender woody vine growing up to 10 in diameter Vines pale green (sometimes reddish tinged) becoming gray- brown segmented by encircling and raised leaf scars Bark light gray to brown, bumpy and gnarly Aerial rootlets exude glue-like substance

32 English Ivy Flowers: June-October Occur on mature upright branches with mature leaves Terminal hairy-stemmed umbel clusters of small greenish-yellow flowers

33 English Ivy Fruit and seeds: October - May Terminal clusters of spherical drupes, 0.2-0.3 in Pale green late summer ripening to dark blue to purplish late winter to spring

34 yellow passionflower wild cucumber Muscadine grape coralbeads Look a likes

35 Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 0.1 – 5 5.1 - 25 25.1 - 50 50.1 - 75 75.1 - 100

36 Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Introduced 1800’s Our most prevalent invasive species Widely planted Occurs in most forest types Shade tolerant

37 Japanese Honeysuckle Forms dense thickets in full sunlight

38 Japanese honeysuckle Plant: Semi-evergreen to evergreen woody vine, high climbing and trailing to 80 ft long, branching and often forming arbors throughout forest canopies and/or ground cover under canopies. Resembles: native honeysuckles and yellow jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), which has thinner leaves and hairless stems, privet seedlings yellow jessamine

39 Japanese Honeysuckle Leaves: Opposite Semi-evergreen or evergreen Broadly ovate to elliptic to oblong, 2-3 in long and 1-2 in wide Base rounded, tips blunt-pointed to rounded Margins entire but often lobed in early spring Smooth to rough hairy both surfaces

40 Japanese Honeysuckle Flowers: April to August Axillary pairs, each 0.8 to 1.2 in long, on a bracted stalk White (or pink) and pale yellow Fragrant Thin tubular flaring into five lobes in two lips (upper lip four-lobed and lower lip single-lobed), with the longest lobes roughly equal to the tube Persistent sepals.

41 Fruit and seeds: August-March Berry black, glossy, nearly spherical, 0.1 in diameter Fruit stem 0.4-1.2 in long with persistent sepals Seeds 2-3 Japanese Honeysuckle

42 Stem: Slender woody vine becoming stout to 2 in diameter Cross-section rounded Opposite branched, brown and hairy becoming tan barked Having fissures and sloughing with age Rooting at low nodes

43 Kudzu Pueraria montana Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 0.1 – 1 1.1 - 4 4.1 - 8 8.1 - 12

44 Kudzu Pueraria montana var lobata Kudzu Pueraria montana var lobata Occurs in old infestations along rights-of-way and stream banks Forms dense mats over ground, debris, shrubs and trees Colonizes by vines rooting at nodes and seed dispersal by wind, animals and water Difficult to control

45 Kudzu Pueraria montana var lobata Kudzu Pueraria montana var lobata Introduced 1900’s Plant: Twining, trailing, and mat-forming woody vine, 35-100 ft long with rope- like vines cover trees and forming dense patches Large semi-woody tuberous roots reaching depths of 3-16 ft

46 Kudzu Kudzu Leaves: Alternate, pinnately compound with 3 leaflets, leaflets 3-7 in long and 3-8 in wide, usually slightly to very lobed (or unlobed in shade) Middle leaflet symmetric, 2-lobed; side leaflets 1-lobed Blades finely hairy above and silvery hairy beneath Tips pointed Margins fine, golden hairy Leafstalks 6-12 in long, hairy with swollen bases

47 Kudzu Kudzu Fruit and Seeds: September-January Dry, flattened legume pod (bulging above the seeds),1-3 in long and 0.3-0.5 in wide 1 to 10 seeds per pod Green ripening to tan with stiff golden brown hairs, splitting on 1-2 sides to release a few ovoid seeds

48 Kudzu Kudzu Flowers: Bloom from June – September In slender clusters (racemes), 2 – 12 in long, open from base to the top, arise from leaf axils Pea-type flowers, lavender to wine- colored petals, smell like grape Kool- Aid

49 Nonnative Vinca Vinca spp. Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 < 2 2 - 5 5.1 - 10 10.1 - 15 15.1 - 25

50 Vincas, Periwinkles

51 Vincas, Periwinkles Vinca minor, Vinca major Vincas, Periwinkles Vinca minor, Vinca major Found on old home-site plantings and scattered in open to dense canopied forests Forms dense mats and extensive infestations even under forest canopies Vines root at nodes

52 Vincas, Periwinkles Vincas, Periwinkles Introduced 1700’s Plant: Evergreen vines Opposite leaved Somewhat woody, trailing or scrambling to 3 ft long and upright to 1 ft tall Violet single flowers Forms mats and extensive infestations Resembles: partridge berry (Mitchella repens), yellow jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), Asiatic jasmine (Trachelospermum asiaticum). partridge berry

53 Vincas, Periwinkles Leaves: Opposite, evergreen to semi-evergreen Common periwinkle is narrow elliptic, 1-2 in long and 0.5-1 in wide, petioles 0.1 in long Bigleaf periwinkle is heart-shaped to somewhat triangular to elliptic, 2-3 in long and 1-2 in wide Both with margins slightly rolled under Blades dark green with whitish lateral and midveins above and lighter green with whitish midveins beneath Petioles 0.2-0.4 in long Milky sap Vinca minor Common periwinkle Vinca major Bigleaf periwinkle

54 Vincas, Periwinkles Vinca minor Common periwinkle Vinca major Bigleaf periwinkle Flowers: April-May (sporadically May-Sept) Axillary, usually solitary, violet to blue lavender (to white) Petals 5, pinwheel-like, radiating at right-angles Common periwinkle flowers are 1 in wide and tube 0.3-0.5 in long Bigleaf periwinkle flowers are 1.5-2 in wide and tube 0.5-1 in long Sepals 5, long-lanceolate, about 0.5 in long, hairy margined

55 Asiatic jasmine partridge berry also has milky sap yellow jessamine

56 Nonnative Wisteria Wisteria spp. Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 0.1 - 1 1.1 - 3 3.1 - 6

57 Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Introduced early 1800’s Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Introduced early 1800’s Wisteria sinensis & W. floribunda Wisteria sinensis & W. floribunda

58 Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Traditional southern porch vine Forms dense growth and overtops trees Colonizes by vines rooting at internodes Seeds are water dispersed along riparian areas

59 Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Plants: High-climbing, twining, or trailing woody vines (or cultured to be shrubs) to 70 ft long, deciduous. Chinese and Japanese wisteria difficult to distinguish due to hybridization. Resembles: American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) having shorter flowers and leaves, and trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) having toothed margins. American wisteria

60 Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Leaves: Deciduous, alternate, odd pinnately compound, 4-16 in long. Leaflets 7-13 (Chinese) or 13- 19 (Japanese) Oval to elliptic with tapering pointed tips, 2-3 in long and 1- 2 in wide Petiole short Margins entire, hairless to short hairy at maturity but densely silky hairy when young Stalks with swollen bases Trumpet creeper

61 Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Flowers: March-May Fragrant, dangling and showy, stalked clusters (racemes), appearing when leaves emerge. Blooming at about the same time (Chinese) or gradually from base (Japanese). 4-20 in long and 3-4 in wide. Pea-type, corolla lavender to violet (to pink to white)

62 Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Chinese & Japanese Wisterias Fruit and seeds: July-November Flattened legume pod, irregularly oblong to oblanceolate, velvety hairy 3-6 in long and 0.8-1.2 in wide Greenish-brown to golden Splits on 2 sides releasing 1-8 flat round brown seeds, 0.5-1 in diameter. Too large to be carried far by animals but floats down streams and rivers to become established

63 American wisteria Leaves slightly hairy 7-13 Flowers open from base to tip Occurs around water

64 Japanese Climbing Fern Lygodium japonicum Percent Occurrence =(Subplots present / Total Forested Subplots) * 100 0 < 3 3 - 10 11 - 25 26 - 50 51 - 75

65 Japanese climbing fern Introduced 1930s Lygodium japonicum

66 Japanese Climbing Fern Japanese Climbing Fern Plant: Fern, climbing and twining, perennial vine, lacy finely-divided leaves along green to orange to black wiry vines to 90 ft long. Main stem under ground. Dies back in winter north of Florida. Spreads by wind-blown spores. Resembles: American climbing fern (native) and Old World climbing fern (only in Florida).

67 Japanese Climbing Fern Leaves (fronds): Opposite on vine, light green Compound once or twice divided Varying in appearance according to the number of divisions, with highly dissected leaves when producing spores Appearing lacy, generally triangular in outline, 3-6 in long and 2-3 in wide, turning dark to tan brown in winter Stem: Slender but difficult to break, twining and climbing, wiry, green to straw-colored or reddish, mostly deciduous in late winter.

68 Japanese climbing fern ‘Flowers and fruit’: Fertile fronds usually have smaller segments with finger like projections around the margins Sporangia (spore producing dots) are in double rows under the leaf margin

69 NJL

70 American climbing fern Lygodium palmatum Look-a-likes Old World climbing fern Lygodium microphyllum ONLY IN FLORIDA NOW ONLY IN FLORIDA NOW

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