Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Early Vine Training, Nutrition, and Canopy Management Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Professor and Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit University of Maryland.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Early Vine Training, Nutrition, and Canopy Management Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Professor and Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit University of Maryland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Vine Training, Nutrition, and Canopy Management Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Professor and Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit University of Maryland Extension

2 Canopy Management Basics Early Vine Training Straight up! Keep graft union above ground Keep off ground Tie to stake 2 trunks Trim off suckers and clusters Eliminate weed competition

3 April 6, 2001

4 April 24, 2001

5 Canopy Management Basics Remove young clusters

6 Canopy Management Basics Grow tubes

7 Grow Tubes Benefits Animal damage Moisture Herbicide Growth rate Replaces stake Physical protection Canopy Management Basics Limitations Cost Growth rate Trunk “twist” Promotes single trunk Diseases, insects Removal Winter damage

8 The use of milk cartons is a good, low cost alternative. It can disintegrate by the end of the season Larger space allows for less humidity/moisture >1 trunk Canopy Management Basics

9 Train multiple trunks Train 2 trunks

10

11

12 Young Vine Training Canopy Management Basics

13 Grapevine Nutrition Avoidance and correction of common nutrient deficiencies in mid-Atlantic vineyards –Pre-plant –soil testing - important in both pre-plant and in vineyard maintenance First-year vine nutrition –Mineral nutrients + organic matter and CEC

14 Essential Grapevine Nutrients

15 Pre-plant Sampling procedure – number, distribution, depth Sample handling Labs for analysis Results (extent of detail will depend on lab) –pH (this will usually decrease over time – why?) –Availability of macro- and micro-nutrients (lbs/A and ppm) –Organic matter – can be increased with organic amendments (e.g., compost) if there is a clear need Soil Testing

16 Target values for soil sampling

17 Newly-planted vines Most new vineyards DO NOT require a fertilizer application. –Apply only as needed to maintain growth –Do not mistake need for water vs. need for nitrogen –On high sand soils, a small (10-20 pounds of actual N) nitrogen application may advance vine development in the first year. –If needed apply a nitrogen based fertilizer – not a complete fertilizer. –Applying small amounts and splitting applications via drip irrigation is very desirable.

18 Phosphorus Fertilizer phosphorus is not used efficiently; much of the added P is “fixed” or rendered unavailable to plants Less available at low ( 7.5) Soil test should be in > 20 ppm (>40 lbs/A). Grapes are efficient at extracting P from soil, even with low P content Most new vineyards DO NOT require P –Best determined with pre-plant soil sample –adjust based on soil samples –Nutrient management plan needed

19 Potassium Deficiency most apt to occur with high soil pH, under conditions of drought, and with young vines (small root system). Moves slowly in soil –Preplant incorporation is important Critical for cold hardiness Can disrupt fruit maturity – fruit pH

20 Nutrient Management Regulations in Maryland A nutrient management plan is a formal document Balances crop nutrient needs with applied nutrients –commercial fertilizer, animal manure, or biosolids The plan contains soil test results, manure and biosolids analyses (where applicable), yield goals, and estimates of residual nitrogen to generate field- by-field nutrient recommendations. Required if over $2500 in sales Contact your local Extension Office –Nutrient Management Advisor meet with you

21 Canopy Management Basics The Goal = “Ripe grapes”

22 Key Viticultural Goals Balanced vine Uniformly, fully mature, pest free grapes Ripen wood to maximum maturity for cold hardiness

23 Canopy Management Basics “Sunlight into Wine” Good Fruit Exposure

24 Canopy Management Basics Light Exposure “Air” Exposure Pesticide Exposure

25 Canopy Management Basics Benefits of Proper Canopy Management Fruit Exposure Uniform Ripening Decreased Disease Increased Color Decreased Acidity Increased Volatiles Vine Balance –Vigor management Bud Fruitfulness Uniform Bud Break Uniform Shoot Vigor Ease of harvest

26 Canopy Management Basics

27 Balance of vegetative and reproductive vigor

28 Training System Terms Canopy Management Basics

29 Varietal growth habit Vertical Lateral

30 Training System Types Single Canopies “VSP” Vertical Shoot Positioning High Cordon Training Split Canopies Vertical Smart-Dyson Scott-Henry Split Canopies Horizontal Lyre Geneva Double Curtain “GDC” Canopy Management Basics

31 Vertical Shoot Positioning

32 Canopy Management

33 Canopy Management Basics High Cordon Training

34 Canopy Management Basics

35 Reactive- Leaf pulling

36 Shaded fruit … 2 weeks later maturity 2 weeks later maturity Increased light and temperature helps fruit to mature

37 Canopy Management Basics Benefits of Proper Canopy Management Fruit Exposure Uniform Ripening Decreased Disease Increased Color Decreased Acidity Increased Volatiles Vine Balance –Vigor management Bud Fruitfulness Uniform Bud Break Uniform Shoot Vigor Ease of harvest

38 Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Professor and Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit Western MD Research & Education Center Keedysville Road Keedysville, MD ext. 344; Fax


Download ppt "Early Vine Training, Nutrition, and Canopy Management Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Professor and Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit University of Maryland."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google