Women were seen as homemakers, caretakers, and an influential religious instructor for children in Protestant homes. Acceptable jobs outside the home ◦ Nun ◦ Artist ◦ Writers (first was Aphra Behn) There were several prominent women in government ◦ Christina of Sweden ◦ Queen Mary II ◦ Anne of Austria
Absolutism: The acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters. “Divine Right” of Kings ◦ Rulers ordained by God ◦ Sin to oppose
Nobility of the Robe: Most often members of aristocratic families who had curried the favor of the Ruler and were given honorary titles and privileges. HIGHLY depended upon the Sovereign. Nobility of the Sword: Individuals who either had ancestors who played a key role in military of feudal affairs or currently hold positions of vital importance. EARNED privileges. DO NOT typically favor monarchs.
Key difference between absolute rulers of the 17 th century and totalitarian rulers of the 20 th century Total participation was not necessary; rulers would be satisfied if subjects simply obeyed the laws and did not oppose them.
Serfs ◦ Peasants tethered to the land ◦ Duty to the feudal lord ◦ Agricultural laborers Corvee ◦ Public service works performed by a feudal lord’s serfs with the aim of receiving tax exemptions
Government must abide by predetermined and concrete rules ◦ Power is usually divided amongst several bodies System adopted by England, Poland- Lithuania, and the Dutch Republic in the latter half of the century
Flaw in the Polish-Lithuanian constitutiton ◦ Required unanimous decisions in order to pass any act of legislation ◦ Led to a highly ineffective government
Mercantilism ◦ Overseas colonies were founded to provide raw materials, labor, and economic gain for the European mother countries Bullionism ◦ A nation’s wealth is measured by the amount of precious metals it possessed Price Revolution ◦ A dramatic rise in the price of commodities in the late 16 th and early 17 th centuries ◦ Due to the influx of precious metals from the New World (inflation) ◦ Caused economic collapse in Spain
French Empire British Empire Habsburg Empire (Austrian Empire) Ottoman Empire Poland-Lithuania Prussia-Brandenburg Tsarist Russia
Henry IV (1589-1610) ◦ Ended French Wars of Religion by signing the Edict of Nantes ◦ Moved France toward Absolutism Louis XIII (1610-1643) ◦ Cardinal Richelieu Appointed to be Louis’ chief minister Established the Intendant system, which strengthened royal power
Louis XIV “the Sun King” (1643-1715) ◦ Made France the model of Absolutism ◦ Issued the Edict of Fontainebleau ◦ Cardinal Mazarin Prime Minister when Louis was young
House of Commons ◦ Lower house of Parliament House of Lords ◦ Upper house of Parliament Stuart line of Kings ◦ Believed their authority came from God ◦ Wanted a monarchy with no Parliament James I (1603-1625) ◦ Asserted the divine right of kings
Charles I (1625-1649) ◦ Ship money ◦ Petition of Right, 1628 ◦ Long Parliament (1640-1660) English Civil War (1642-1649) ◦ The Cavaliers ◦ The Roundheads ◦ New Model Army Pride’s Purge
Charles II (1660-1685) Cavalier Parliament (1660-1679) ◦ Tory and Whig parties ◦ Declaration of Indulgence, 1672 ◦ Test Act of 1672 The Commonwealth (1649-1653) ◦ Oliver Cromwell ◦ Destroyed the monarchy and the House of Lords ◦ Levellers ◦ Quakers
The Stuart Restoration James II (1685-1688) The Glorious Revolution ◦ William and Mary invited to take the throne ◦ Bill of Rights (1689) ◦ Placed limits on power of English monarchy Toleration Act of 1689 ◦ Gave Puritan Dissenters the right to free public worship
Albert Frederick (1568- 1618) John Sigismund (1618-1619) George William (1619-1640)
Frederick William the Great Elector (1640- 1688) ◦ Hohenzollern ruler who rebuilt Prussia after the Thirty Years’ War Frederick I (1688-1713) ◦ Reigned as Elector of Brandenburg from 1688- 1701 ◦ Crowned the first King of Prussia in 1701 (remained so until his death in 1713) ◦ Made Prussia a kingdom
“Sparta of the North” Prussia Hohenzollerns Ruling family in Prussia beginning in the 16 th century Junkers Nobility which the rulers heavily relied upon
Rudolf II 1576–1612 ◦ Proponent of the Counter Reformation ◦ Pro- Catholic ◦ Overthrown by his brother Matthias in 1612 Matthias 1612–1619 ◦ Sought compromise between the Catholic and Protestant factions
Ferdinand II 1619–1637 ◦ Supporter of Catholics in the Thirty Years’ War Ferdinand III 1637–1657 ◦ Signed Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years’ War in 1648
Leopold I- Austria- ◦ 1655 – 1705 ◦ Known for conflict with the Ottomans As seen in the Siege of Vienna (1683) ◦ Rival of Louis XIV (his cousin)
Joseph I- Successor to Austrian Throne (after Leopold I) ◦ 1690 – 1711 ◦ Continued war of Spanish Succession ◦ Attempted to place Charles VI in power in the Spanish Throne
Mehmed IV ◦ 1648–1687 ◦ The Hunter Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa ◦ Mastermind of the Siege of Vienna (1683) ◦ Defeated by Polish and its Holy League allies ◦ Executed for his failure Head presented to Mehmed IV
Muscovy ◦ A medieval principality in west central Russia that was centered around Moscow and formed the nucleus of modern Russia. Boyars ◦ A member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in rank to a prince.
Romanov Dynasty ◦ “Russian ruling dynasty (1613-1917) that began with the accession of Czar Michael (1596-1645; ruled 1613-1645) and ended with the abdication of Nicholas II during the Russian Revolution.” (Dictionary.com)
Old Believers” ◦ A group of Russian Orthodox members who separated from the church after the reforms of 1666. ◦ Led by Patriarch Nikon
Peter the Great (1689-1725) ◦ Was determined to westernize Russia after traveling west in 1697-1698 ◦ Formed the first Russian navy ◦ Built St. Petersburg
Thirty Years’ War ◦ a major conflict involving principally Austria, Denmark, France, Holland, the German states, Spain, and Sweden, that devastated central Europe, esp large areas of Germany (1618-48). ◦ Catholics vs. Protestants ◦ Ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
Treaty of Pyreness, 1659 ◦ Ended fighting between France and Spain that continued after the Thirty Years’ War ◦ Marked the end of Spain’s status as a major European power
League of Augsburg (Spain, the HRE, the United Provinces, Sweden, and England) formed against France’s annexation of Alsace and Lorraine War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) ◦ brought economic depression and famine to France Treaty of Ryswick ended the war ◦ Louis lost most of his conquests
Siege of Vienna, 1683 ◦ a Turkish army invaded Vienna ◦ Austrian, Polish, and German forces repelled them, marking the beginning of a decline in Ottoman power
Arminianism -Based on the teachings of Dutch theologian Jacob Arminius -Contrasts Calvinism with their views on the sovereignty of God and predestination -Opposition to some of the teachings of the Belgic Confession were formalized into five articles of Remonstrance published by Arminius followers in 1610 Calvinism -associated with the Reformer John Calvin -Emphasizes the rule of God over all things as reflected in its understanding of Scripture, God, humanity, salvation, and the church. -Often refers to the Five Points of Calvinistic doctrine regarding salvation, which make up the acrostic TULIP
Protestantism -Movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church, which occurred during the 16th century in Europe in what is called the Protestant Reformation. -Represents a diverse range of theological and social perspectives, denominations and related organizations. -Considered one of the three major branches of Christianity Catholicism -The Roman Catholic Church encountered division in Protestant Reformation, led initially by Martin Luther, although Luther's intention was not to create a new Christianity but to internally reform the teachings of the church. -excommunicated the "reformers" which gave rise to Protestantism with its numerous denominations, many of which developed distinctive theological perspectives.
Roman Catholicism contains a number of doctrines which Protestants view as unbiblical, such as the doctrine of Transubstantiation, the veneration and intercession of deceased saints, prayers for the dead, purgatory, the immaculate conception and bodily assumption of Mary, and papal infallibility. Jansenism - a Christian theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. -Originated from work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen -Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits
Philosophers and Enlightened Religious Thinkers
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Galileo: -The Heliocentric Theory (Sun was the center of universe) was widely disapproved by Catholics Isaac Newton: -Philosophae Naturalis Principia Mathematica describes universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. -Other works include the principles of conservation related to momentum and angular momentum, the refraction of light, an empirical law of cooling, the building of the first practical telescope. Galileo stood trial for heresy in 1633 after he published his book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World System, which discussed the theory.
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Vesalius: -Founder of Modern Anatomy - De Humani Commis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) is one of the most important works about human anatomy. William Harvey: -His works include An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals (blood circulation) and Essays on the Generation of Animals (embryology) - Famous for correctly explained the process of blood circulation in our bodies and the role of heart
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Anton van Leeuwenhoek - “The Father of Microbiology” and one of the first microscopists in history -Discovered protozoa and created the first-ever description of red blood cell. John Harrison -English clockmaker and carpenter -Invented the marine chronometer in order to establish a position of a ship at sea
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers John Locke -Most noted works are “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”, “Two Treatises of Government”, and “A Letter Concerning Toleration”. -Shaped both the American Constitution and the French Revolution and laid the groundwork for liberal political thought. Pierre Bayles -a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work Historical and Critical Dictionary -Advocated a separation between the spheres of faith and reason and the principle of the toleration of divergent beliefs
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Baron de Montesquieu -Famous for his theory of “seperation of powers” in government. -His work Spirit of The Laws placed an emphasis on environmental influences being material conditions for life. Jean-Jacques Rousseau -An advocate for the “general will” of the people -His beliefs majorly influenced the French Revolution - Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and On the Social Contract impacted modern political and social thought.
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Voltaire - Advocated freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. -Criticized and attacked the Catholic Church Denis Diderot -best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor of, and contributor to the Encyclopédie. - His novel, Jacques the Fatalist and his Master examined the idea of free will.
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Cesare de Beccaria - Best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments, which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology. François Quesnay -His Economic Table provided the foundations of the ideas of the Physiocrats -First work to attempt to describe the workings of the economy in an analytical way
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Adam Smith -Father of Modern Economics -Best known for Wealth of Nations (free economy) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (discusses morality) -Neoclassical economists believe in his “invisible hand” theory Madame de Geoffrin -Leading female figure in the French Enlightenment -Her actions as a Parisian salonnière exemplify many of the most important characteristics of Enlightenment sociability.
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Madame de Staël -A French-Swiss woman of letters and novelist that greatly influenced European thought and literature with her enthusiasm for German romanticism. Mary Wollstonecraft -Her most famous work was A Vindication of the Rights of Woman -Famous Feminist
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Jean de Condorcet -a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election. Immanuel Kant -Argued that human perception structures natural laws, and that reason is the source of morality -The Critique of Pure Reason aimed to unite reason with experience to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics.
Philosophers and Enlightened Thinkers Thomas Hobbes -His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory
1. How did Peter the Great’s policy of Westernization influence the cultural landscape of 17 th century Russia? 2. Elaborate upon Louis XIV’s implementation of the theory of politique and how it influenced his governing policies. 3. How did the decline of feudalism contribute to the rise of mercantilism and the “price revolution”?