Conditions for African Americans ► What do you think they were like? How were they treated? What did they do for jobs? Where did they live? Were they given rights?
► No Land – could not grow crops Sharecropping – landowners divided land – Land farmed but most of crop goes to land owners Tennant Farming – Rented land to farm
Another Problem ► Little or no food, clothes, hospitals, or schools
Freedman’s Bureau ► Summarize ► its main role was providing emergency food, housing and medical aid to refugees. It could also help find families. By late 1865, it focused its work on helping the Freedmen adjust to new conditions. Its main job was setting up work opportunities and supervising labor contracts. It soon became, in effect, a military court that handled legal issues.
Cartoon ► The caption reads, "THE FREEDMAN'S BUREAU! An Agency to keep the NEGRO in idleness at the EXPENSE of the white man. Twice vetoed by the PRESIDENT, and made a law by CONGRESS. Support Congress & you support the negro. Sustain the President and you protect the white man." A barefooted black man lounges in the foreground, asking himself, "What is de use for me to work as long as dey make dese appropriations." The left-side background presents contrasting scenes of industrious white men chopping wood and plowing fields. In the background above the languishing freedman is the U.S. Capitol, with rays of light streaming from the Statue of Freedom. Appealing both to the visual imagery and shrill logic of white supremacy, prints such as these contributed to the gradual decline and eventual elimination of the Freedmen's Bureau. Proving once again that the artist's crayon is more powerful than either the pen or the sword, this print presents a depressing example of the immense power of political cartoons in domestic policy.
Conditions in the South ► Devastated Economically ► Property devalued ► Population devastated
Who are These People? ► Scalawags ► Carpetbaggers ► Freedmen ► Radical Republicans ► Sharecroppers ► Tenant farmers ► Jim Crow “Looking for Love” (5)
SCALAWAG ► A white southerner who supported the North during the Civil War ► Considered a traitor by the other Southerners.
CARPETBAGGER ► A Northerner who went South after the Civil War to make money or get rich quick. ► Despised by the Southerners.
FREEDMAN ► A freed slave after the Civil War. ► He had nothing but the clothes on his/her back. ► Freedman’s Bureau was created to help them (education, jobs, food, etc.). ► Discriminated against by Southerners who blamed them for the war.
RADICAL REPUBLICANS ► Members of Congress (from Northern states only) who wanted the South to pay for the Civil War. ► Thaddeus Stevens was one of the leaders. ► Johnson was impeached because he fired Edwin M. Stanton (Cabinet member) who was a Radical Republican.
SHARECROPPERS ► Freedmen became sharecroppers since they owned no land and had no money to supply seeds for a crop. ► Landowners received most of the crop and the sharecroppers received a place to stay and some of the crop that they worked to raise. ► They usually ended up owing the land- owner money at the end of the harvest. (debt)
TENANT FARMERS ► People (mostly freedmen) who lived on a farm and worked for the owner in order to have a place to stay and to get food. ► Poor farmers who worked very hard to survive.
JIM CROW ► Not a real person. ► Laws that were passed to control the Freedmen (ex-slaves). ► Segregation laws passed in most formerly Confederate States.
► passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races." ► Any Negro man and white woman, or any white man and Negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars." ► "All persons licensed to conduct a restaurant, shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room or serve the two races anywhere under the same license.“ ► "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. "