Definition ①My argument is Area Studies is holistic and Objective approach to understand/know the human being/society for co-existance. But how and what for ??? ②My answer is Balance & Harmony! ③Even though it has begun to know their enemy during WWII CriticismDifferencesWhy?
Definition ①Jean Baptiste DUROSELLE(1917.11.17-1994.09.12) ②French historian and professor. ③the scientific study of a region presenting a certain politico- social unity with a view to understanding and explaining its place and its role international society. This result can only be obtained by the systematic use of all branches of study that may provide valid explanations ④In UNESCO – INTERNATIONAL SOCIALSCIENCE BULLETIN
Concept ①based on a concept, are carried out with the aid of institutions called area centers, and are predicated on some measure of scholarly collaboration. ②scholars collaborate in manifold ways. ③the people of a definable geographical sector, acting in their society and their environment, offer an appropriate unit for scholarly attention.
Background ①during World War II, ②governments discovered an alarming shortage of individuals who were seriously acquainted with the languages, cultures, and topographical characteristics of the world areas ③in which had to fight and about which important political and social decisions had to be made ④‘know your enemy’
For instance, ①[The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture] - Author : Ruth Benedict - Publication date : 1946 - It was written at the invitation of the U.S. Office of War Information, - In order to understand and predict the behaviour of the Japanese in World War II
①[The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture] both aggressive and unaggressive, both militaristic and aesthetic, both insolent and polite, rigid and adaptable, submissive and resentful of being pushed around, loyal and treacherous, brave and timid, conservative and hospitable to new ways... - The Chrysanthemum and the Sword p 2
①[The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture]
pursue the policy of militarism Japanese cruelness Meaning of beauty and mildness Such as artistry, courteous, loyalty, filial duty About Japanese’s duplicity
My Argument ①My argument is Area Studies is holistic and Objective approach to understand/know the human being/society for co-existance. ②The answer is Balance & Harmony! ③Even though it has begun to know their enemy during WWII CriticismDifferencesWhy?
Criticism from other social science disciplines ①Area specialist is a furnisher of empirical data. Words such as fact, event, and observation have been used to refer to vast segments of human experience. All observations are theory-impregnated. (Karl popper) Most of the theories in the disciplines are based on empirical generalization. Hardly dealing with theory uncontaminated with reference to particular experience. ②Area specialist is incapable of engaging in comparative analysis. Most area specialists are firmly convinced that the phenomena are eminently comparable to similar categories of phenomena elsewhere. e.g. the Western area specialist would be comparative-minded More comparative communication should take place among area specialists and comparative theorists from other disciplines. ③Area studies deal with so many disciplines. (attacks from behaviorism) The behavioral social scientist aspire to eliminate the queer and bothersome factor of subjective intentions and the conscious truth-claims of the human particles he examines. When a purely behavioral point of view is applied to the study of non-Western society, it obstructs balanced understanding and its culture boundedness. The only honest way of studying far-off societies is to give as much weight to the subjective life as they give to their own.
Edward Said “Area studies are simply the latest variant of the orientalism.” A Palestinian American literary theorist The faculty of Columbia University in 1963, where he became professor of English and comparative literature in 1991. best known for the 1978 book 『 Orientalism 』 The West's patronizing perceptions-The East A transformative impact on Middle Eastern studies
Edward Said’s attacks Area studies are simply the latest variant of the orientalism. What are the features that orientalism and area studies share? Orientalism and Area studies: ①Based on a confident sense of superiority. ②Have been designed to serve political purposes or other interests. ③Are knowledge as a mode of domination. The orientalist treats the Orient as an exotic, totally integrated, cultural system, one radically different from the culture of the West. Are the notion of the absolute, changeless, and irreducible differences of other cultures still present in contemporary area studies? Although many of cultural and linguistic relativists are no longer convinced of Western superiority, however, such ideas hardly constitute the mainstream of contemporary area studies. However, area specialists are also committed to the idea of significant difference - Japan, India, and China are significantly different from each other.
Modernization theory Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a "pre-modern" or "traditional" to a "modern" society. “Traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have. It has been criticized, mainly because it conflated modernization with Westernization. Area studies: Instead of applying Western models, social scientists should develop culturally and historically contextualized knowledge of various parts of the world by working closely with humanists. Localizing modernity.
World system analysis - Immanuel Wallenstein It is from Wallerstein's first volume on world-system theory (The Modern World System, 1974) Aiming to replace modernization theory The world-system: core, semi-periphery and periphery. There is a fundamental and institutionally stabilized 'division of labor' between core and periphery. Countries are part of the world economy. Countries do not "develop" in stages, but rather the system does. Since the world has already become one interdependent system in terms of the criteria, Area studies represent varied human responses to common human concerns and aspire to achieve a complex and deep understanding of other societies, cultures and historic experience.