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By Humza Asad and Faisal Ashfaq

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1 By Humza Asad and Faisal Ashfaq
War and Peace By Humza Asad and Faisal Ashfaq

2 Contents Definitions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism
Sikhism Golden Rule of Peace Further Definitions Just War Holy War in Islam Alternate viewpoints: Nuclear Deterrence Alternative viewpoints: Sanctity of Life Pacifists: Quakers Alternative viewpoints: Pacifism Red Cross and Red Crescent The United Nations Quiz Video

3 Definitions War – Armed conflict between two or more groups or nations. Peace – The opposite of war. It is where people live in harmony with each other, and are not trying to hurt each other. Justice – fairness. It where all people have equal rights and freedom and are protected by laws mad up by legitimate governments. Sanctity of life – All live is valuable and special. Pacifist – Believing all war and killing is wrong. Holy war – Believing it is right to fight in a war in the name of God. Just War – Believing it is right to fight a war in the interests of justice and the greater good. Contents

4 Buddhism The First Precept – Ahimsa – To refrain from harming others (non-violence). The Noble Eightfold Path – Make you consider others, as well as the consequences of all behaviour. ‘Hatred does not cease by hatred, hatred ceases by love.’ (Dhammapada). ‘He should not kill a living being, nor cause it to be killed, nor should he incite another to kill.’ (Dhammapada). ‘Peace can exist if everyone respects all others.’ (Dalai Lama). Contents

5 Christianity ‘Put away your sword. Those who live by the sword die by the sword. (Jesus). ‘Blessed are the peacemakers.’ (Jesus – Sermon on the Mount). ‘Love your enemies, and pray for them.’ (Jesus – Sermon on the Mount). ‘Peace I leave with you, my peace I give to you.’ (Jesus). Everyone must commit themselves to peace.’ (Pope John Paul II). Contents

6 Hinduism Kshatriyas (warrior caste) are expected to be the first to battle, and the bravest to battle; their main duty to defend and protect others. Even an enemy must be offered appropriate hospitality if he comes to your home. (Mahabharata). Hindu’s also believe in Ahimsa (non-violence), tolerance, compassion and respect, as well as protection of others. ‘The pursuit of the truth does not permit violence being inflicted on one’s opponent.’ (Ghandi) ‘If you do not find in this Just War, you will neglect your duty, harm your reputation and commit sin and omission.’ (Bhagavad Gita). Contents

7 Islam In Islam, Muslims greet each others with ‘Assalamu Alaikum’ – which means ‘peace be upon you.’ Greater Jihad is everybody's personal struggle – this can be spiritual struggles against desire, ego, temper etc . Lesser Jihad is Holy War against those who oppress you. ‘To those whom war is made, permission is given to fight.’ (Hadith). ‘Hate your enemy mildly; for he may become your friend your day. (Hadith). Contents

8 Judaism Jews greet each other with ‘Shalom,’ which means ‘peace.’
Get ready for war. Let your fighting men advance for the attack. (Ketuvim). The sword comes to the world because of the delay of justice and through injustice. (Talmud). It shall come to pass...nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more – Nevi’im – about the future before G-d’s kingdom is established. When siege is laid to a city, surround only three sides to give an opportunity for escape to those who would flee to save their lives. (Maimonides Code). Contents

9 Sikhism The Sikh Khanda includes two swords, and Sikhs wear the kirpan showing a willingness to fight when necessary. When all other methods have failed it is permissible to draw the sword. (Guru Gobind Singh). The Lord is the haven of peace. (Adi Granth). Peace is believed tom come from God. Contents

10 Golden Rule of Peace Buddhism: ‘I shall act towards others exactly as I would act towards myself.’ (Udana-varqa). Christianity: ‘Treat yourself as you would like them to treat you.’ (Jesus). Hinduism: ‘This is the sum of duty: do nothing to others which if done to you could cause pain.’ (Mahabharata). Islam: ‘None of you truly believe until he wishes for his brothers what he wishes for himself.’ (Muhammad) Judaism: ‘What is harmful to yourself do not do to your fellow man.’ (Rabbi Hillel). Sikhism – ‘As you value yourself, so value others – cause suffering to no one.’ (Guru Granth Sahib). Contents

11 Further Definitions Terrorism – Acts of violence that are intended to create fear. Nuclear Weapons – Weapons which cause immediate destruction to life and structures within range. Biological Warfare – ‘Germ warfare’ – cause bacterium or viruses such as anthrax. Chemical Warfare – Use non-living toxins – mustard gas. Radiological Weapons – ‘Dirty Bombs’ – Bombs which can disperse radioactive material. Nuclear Deterrence – The possession of nuclear weapons to deter countries from attacking. Nuclear Proliferation – The increase in development and possession of such weapons. Contents

12 Just War The Just War theory was written by St Thomas Aquinas
It involves the following conditions, War must be started and controlled by a government There must be a just cause (it cannot be aggression) It must have a clear aim to promote good and overcome evil It must be the last resort It must be winnable It must be conducted fairly There must be a good outcome and a restoration of peace.

13 Holy War in Islam Muslims have a duty to fight – if a just leader begins war – although only one from each two should fight. Running away cowardly is condemned A war may only begin if the enemy attacks Civilians cannot be harmed and prisoners of war should be treated well War ends when people regain their rights or when the enemy calls for peace

14 Alternative Viewpoints: Nuclear Deterrence
Case FOR Nuclear Deterrence Case AGAINST Nuclear Deterrence To discourage other countries from threatening attacks. They must work because nuclear weapons have not been used since 1945. Arms agreements can only be reached if the world powers have equal capabilities The use of other WMD is made less likely Nuclear Proliferation makes there use more likely. Their use could never be morally justified. They cost billions, money which could be better spent on the needs of people. Other countries are encouraged to develop a nuclear capability. Contents

15 Alternate viewpoints: Sanctity of life
In terms of peace In terms of war All life is sacred and should be protected. Therefore going to war is wrong as soldiers and civilians are killed. In this situation there is no respect for the sanctity of life. The Dhammapada enforces this – ‘Hatred doesn’t cease by hatred, hatred ceases by love.’ Ghandi confirms this – ‘An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind’ Therefore going to war is correct because our nations and families need protection In this situation we uphold the sanctity of life by commiting the lesser of two evils. The Torah sums this up when it says – ‘The sword will comes to the world because of the delay of justice and though injustice’ Martin Luther King, Jr confirms this – ‘The moral arc of the universe bends at the elbow of justice.’ Contents

16 Pacifists: Quakers These are pacifist Quaker group who believe they are following the true teachings of Jesus. Their Peace Testimony makes it clear that they shall never use violence – whatever the circumstances. They oppose all outward war and strife and denounce violence – whatever the form. Contents

17 Alternatives viewpoints: Pacifism
Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a Christian living in Germany during the Nazi party. He believed and called himself a pacifist. However as the war surged on he believed he had to sacrifice his beliefs and principles, because he believed that helping the oppressed was a test of faith. He was part of a group that planned to assassinate Hitler – he believed it was necessary for the greater good. He was eventually executed by the Nazi’s. The Dalai Lama is a spiritual leader for Buddhists. When the Chinese invaded his country he was forced into exile. Despite the injustice he refused to physically fight. He believes that peace can only exist if everyone respects each other. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992. Contents

18 Red Cross and Red Crescent
The founding principles are: Humanity – To prevent and mitigate suffering. Impartiality – Relieve suffering of individuals with no discrimination of race, religion etc. Neutrality – To not take sides. Independence . Voluntary. Unity – the can only be one Red Cross/Crescent society in a country. Universality – All societies within the movement have equal status. Contents

19 The United Nations Principles –
Maintain international peace and security. Develop friendly relations between nations. To co-operate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. To promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. To be a centre for helping nations achieve these aims. Contents

20 Quiz

21 Being a Pacifist is ‘morally’ wrong.

22 If a God does not exist then the sanctity, empathy, justice and morality of life are just some, of many, ideas conjured up by mankind. Therefore there is nothing ‘wrong’ with an ‘unjustifiable’ war as it is another idea conjured up by mankind. Discuss.

23 Wars are necessary in the world – as without wars we would never be able to appreciate the full extent of peace and tranquility.

24 ‘Wars do no solve problems; they only create them’
Do you agree? Give reasons for your answers, showing that you have more than one point of view. Refer to religious arguments in your answer. (6 marks).

25 Video

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