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Arthurian Legends What you should know. Knights and Chivalry during Medieval Times period: Knights: Men who pledged their loyalty to the king; in return.

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Presentation on theme: "Arthurian Legends What you should know. Knights and Chivalry during Medieval Times period: Knights: Men who pledged their loyalty to the king; in return."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arthurian Legends What you should know

2 Knights and Chivalry during Medieval Times period: Knights: Men who pledged their loyalty to the king; in return they were given lands by the king. Knights fought for king and country. The path to knighthood began at the age of seven or eight, when a vassal sent his son to the lord's house to become a page. For seven years a page was cared for by the women of the house, who instructed him in comportment, courtesy, cleanliness, and religion. At 14 the page became a squire, a personal attendant to a knight. From the knight he learned riding and all the skills of war, as well as hunting, hawking, and other sports. These knights gave rise to legends about romanticized quests that displayed their chivalry. Code of Chivalry: code of conduct developed to reflect feudal ideals of honor. This code demanded that knights be brave warriors and virtuous Christians who would fight selflessly for justice.

3 Warm Up: Ladies, describe your perfect man by creating an acrostic for the word: C-H-I-V-A-L-R-Y. Gentlemen, describe your perfect woman by creating an acrostic for the word: L-A-D-Y-L-O-V-E.

4 General Info: King Arthur is a medieval, mythological figure who was the head of the kingdom Camelot and the Knights of the Round Table. It is not known if there was a real Arthur, though it is believed he may have been a Roman- affiliated military leader who successfully staved off a Saxon invasion during the 5th to 6th centuries. His legend has been popularized by many writers. Many of the tales speak of his bravery and chivalry.

5 Names you need to know: Merlin: Wizard who raises Arthur Excalibur: Arthur’s sword Mordred: Arch nemesis; Arthur’s illegitimate son with his half-sister (yep!) Morgan le Fay: Arthur’s sister; has Mordred with her Guinevere: Arthur’s wife; cheats on Arthur with Lancelot

6 Names you need to know: Lancelot: One of Arthur’s Knights of the Round table; brought about the fall of Camelot because of his affair with Guinevere Camelot: Place; the name of Arthur’s kingdom Kaius (Kay): Arthur’s older brother Knights of the Round Table: All of Arthur’s knights; round table made them all equal Lady of the Lake: fairytale figure who lives in a lake; raises Lancelot; gives Arthur Excalibur

7 As a young boy… The story goes that Arthur’s father, Uther, fell in love with a married women (uh, oh). In order to have her he struck a bargain with the wizard Merlin. Merlin would make it to where she was single (her husband dies in battle) and be could marry her IF he promises Merlin his first born son. Uther agrees and Merlin raises and teaches a young Arthur. OwlE OwlE

8 Sword in the Stone story The story goes that England was without a king and there was no known heir. So, Merlin placed a sword in a giant stone. The sword read, “Whoever draws this sword is the rightful king of England” (conveniently). Arthur’s brother Kay tries to draw the sword first and is unable to do so. Several other men who were big a strong also tried and failed. Arthur drew last and was able to draw the sward from the stone. Thus, he was made king of England.

9 From the TV Show Merlin m/watch?v=RaBmWqQ kKYE

10 Camelot Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. After drawing the sowrd form the stone, the Lady of the Lake gave the kingdom of Camelot to the newly crowned King Arthur. Absent in the early Arthurian material, Camelot first appeared in 12th-century French romances and eventually came to be described as the fantastic capital of Arthur's realm and a symbol of the Arthurian world. The stories locate it somewhere in Great Britain and sometimes associate it with real cities, though more usually its precise location is not revealed. Most scholars regard it as being entirely fictional, its geography being perfect for romance writers.

11 The Great Kingdom of Camelot

12 Knights of the Round Table The Knights of the Round Table were characters in the legends about King Arthur. They were the best knights in King Arthur's kingdom, and lived in King Arthur's castle, Camelot. They were called the Knights of the Round Table because of a special table in Camelot, that was round instead of rectangular. This meant that everyone who sat around it was seen as equal.

13 Key Knights? Lancelot is a character in the legend of King Arthur, and was a Knight of the Round Table. Sir Lancelot of the Lake was one of the most trusted knights of King Arthur's Round Table, but this soon changed when he fell in love with the king's wife, Queen Guinevere. He was raised by the Lady of the Lake, hence his title Lancelot Du Lac. Sir Lancelot was the only knight known to defeat King Arthur during a jousting match. He is also known briefly as the father of Sir Galahad, the greatest knight of all Camelot. He was a Red Cross Knight, which meant that he was one of the knights who was in the quest to find the Holy Grail.

14 Key Knights? Sir Gawain is a fictional character in the King Arthur stories. He is one of the most important Knights of the Round Table. His parents are Arthur's sister Morgause (or Anna) and King Lot. He is the main character of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, a mediaeval fantasy poem. He is said to be Arthur's nephew. he appears very early on in the legend and has been mentioned in very early Welsh sources.

15 Key Knights? Sir Galahad is the son of Lancelot. He is known as the greatest knight ever. He arrived to King Arthur's castle wearing red armor and sat at an empty seat at the Round Table. He pulled a sword from a block of crystalline stone which was floating in the moat surrounding King Arthur's castle. Many knights tried to pull the sword from the crystalline stone, including King Arthur himself. No one was able to make the sword budge, but when Galahad attempted, he pulled the sword out with ease and said, "Is that all?" Later, Galahad went on a mission to find the Holy Grail in order to heal his grandfather.

16 Holy Grail story The Holy Grail was a vessel used by Christ at the Last Supper. Given to his grand-uncle, St. Joseph of Arimathea, it was used by him to collect Christ's blood and sweat while Joseph tended him on the Cross. After Christ's death, Joseph was apparently imprisoned in a rock tomb similar to the one he had given for the body of his grand-nephew. Left to starve, he was sustained for several years by the power of the Grail which provided him with fresh food and drink every morning. Later, St. Joseph travelled to Britain. The Grail was taken to Corbenic where it was housed in a spectacular castle, guarded always by the Grail Kings.

17 Arthur’s Knights and the Holy Grail At the Court of King Arthur, it was prophesied that the Grail would one day be rediscovered by a descendant of St. Joseph: the best knight in the land. This man was Galahad, the son of Lancelot. Along with a miraculous, though brief vision of the Grail itself, a quest to find this holiest of relics began. Through many adventures and many years, the Knights of the Round Table crossed Britain from one end to another in their search. Perceval discovered the castle in a land that was sickly like its spear-wounded King. When entertained by "Grail King", however, he failed to ask of the grail and left empty-hand. Lancelot next reached Corbenic, but was prevented from entering because of he was an adulterer. Finally Galahad arrived. He was permitted entry to the Grail Chapel and allowed to gaze upon the great cup. His life became complete and together grail and man were lifted up to heaven.

18 The Death of King Arthur Le Morte d'Arthur (French for “the death of Arthur”) is a compilation by Sir Thomas Malory of traditional tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table. Malory interprets existing French and English stories about these figures and adds original material.

19 What happened?? Lancelot and lady Guinevere began having an affair behind King Arthur’s back. Mordred (who hated King Arthur) found out about it and made sure Arthur found out also (wanted him to suffer). Arthur decided to punish Guinevere by sentencing her to burn at the stake, but on the day of the execution Lancelot attacks and saves her. Sir Gawain, mad at Lancelot, convinces Arthur to go to war with Lancelot. While Arthur goes to war, Mordred takes over Camelot,

20 And in the end… As Arthur fights to take back Camelot, several of his knights are killed, including Sir Gawain. During the battle, Arthur charges Mordred and impales him with a spear. But with the last of his strength, Mordred impales himself even further, so as to come within striking distance of King Arthur, then gives a mortal blow to Arthur’s head. On his death bed, Arthur requests Excalibur be given back to the lady of the lake. One of his knights, tempted twice to keep the sword, finally throws Excalibur back in to the lake. The lady catches the sword and it is never seen again.

21 What about Lancelot and Guinevere??? When Lancelot returns, he mourns the deaths of his comrades. Lancelot goes to see Guinevere. During the war, Guinevere is portrayed as a scapegoat for violence without developing her perspective or motivation. However, after Arthur's death, Guinevere retires to a convent in penitence for her infidelity. Her contrition is sincere and permanent; Lancelot is unable to sway her to come away with him. Instead, Lancelot becomes a monk, and is joined in monastic life by his kinsmen. Cheating is BAAAAAD!!!


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