2Reviewing the Main Idea Why did the United States declare its independence from Britain?What other reasons might make nations want to fight for their freedom?
3Major Causes of the War 1. Cuban rebellion against Spain 2. American desire to protect sugar investments in Cuba.3. Yellow Journalism spurs anger towards Spain.4. The explosion of the USS Maine.
41.Reasons for rebellionCuba was one of Spain’s oldest colonies in the America’s.The Spanish enslaved a large portion of the population to work in sugar plantations. Cuba produced 1/3 of the world’s sugar.Why was Cuba so valuable to Spain?American tariff on Cuban sugar leaves the economy devastatedWhat is a tariff?Cuba declares independence in 1895.
52. Yellow Journalism Spurs Support for war Yellow Journalism: When stories are exaggerated or made up to attract readers. Think the tabloids!Americans are reading this journalism in popular newspapers The New York World and the Journal. These papers are owned by the famous William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Many accuse them of pushing for war!Reporters are describing the Spanish atrocities in Cuba. Cubans were destroying sugar plantations in order to hurt the Spanish economy and attract American attention (American has many investments in Cuban Sugar)The Spanish placed General Valeriano Weyler the new governor of Cuba. Many referred to him as “The Butcher”.To prevent destruction of sugar plantations many Cubans are placed in camps where they suffer from starvation and disease.Despite all of this president Cleveland wants to remain neutral.
6Describe the cartoonJoseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst are dressed as the “Yellow Kids,” representing Yellow Journalism. The two men are pushing against opposite sides of a pillar of wooden blocks that spell WAR. Many historians believe that the two exaggerated the need for the conflict, which cost Spain the last of its colonies. Printed June 29, 1898.
73.The US declares War!1897 William McKinley becomes president. He does not want to get involved in the war, but wants to help negotiate peace.Wyler is removed as Governor and the Spanish offer the Cubans autonomy if they remain part of the Spanish empire.The Cubans refuse!McKinley sends the USS Maine to Havana in case Americans need to evacuate the island.On February 15, 1898 the Maine exploded in Havana Harbor. To this day nobody knows exactly why.What do you think the yellow journalists said caused the explosion?“Remember the Maine” becomes the slogan for those who want war.On April 19, 1898 The United States declared war on Spain.
8Was war justified?Jingoism-Feeling of strong nationalism. We had to get revenge for the USS Maine!What do you think?Where do you think the fighting will take place?
9Remember the MaineLend your ear to the whisper, it floats from afar, It has traveled from where, underneath her lone star, The fair isle of Cuba impatiently waits The summons to enter our circle of states. From the depths of her anguish the throes of her pain, That whisper comes to us, "Remember the 'Maine'." Lend your ear to the whisper, it tells of the brave, Who with sword yet in sheath, know not even a grave; Can we say had that sword but been wakened in time, That back from the shot-riven air and the grime Of the conflict, our sons might have reached us again, While their foemen would ever "Remember the 'Maine'." Lend your ear to the whisper, nay lend more your hand, 'Twill be needed, if men yet remain in this land, That so proudly lays claim to the title of free, And that now in its sorrow is summoned to be A saviour, if not an avenger; how plain Comes the message, O brothers "Remember the 'Maine'." Lend your ear to the whisper, 'tis growing more strong, 'Tis a whisper no longer, 'tis sweeping along Through the length and the breadth of this land of the free, From city to mountain, from mountain to sea, And the voice of America tells thee, O Spain, That the men of our country "Remember the 'Maine'." -Arthur H. MacOwen 1898
10The Fighting BeginsThe US Navy surrounds Cuba, while Commodore George Dewey was ordered to attack the Spanish in the Philippines (a Spanish Colony)Why attack the Philippines?The US very easily defeats the Spanish in the Philippines with the help of Emilio Aguinaldo, a revolutionary who wanted independence for the Philippines.The US is also able to take control of the Spanish possession Guam
11Fighting in Cuba Both sides were not prepared to fight this war. Many die from disease rather than in battle.Many thought the fate of the war would be determined at sea.“Rough Riders” mix of cowboys, miners, and law officers under the command of Theodore Roosevelt accomplish major victories and force the Spanish fleet to flee. ¼ of the troops were African American and four received the medal of honor for their bravery.Spanish troops surrender and American troops move into the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico.Colonel Leonard Wood also helped to lead the “rough riders”
12Conditions of Peace 1.Some argued that it would be good for the US: Cuba will gain its independenceThe US will annex Guam and Puerto RicoWhat should happen to the Philippines?Who do you think should have control over the Philippines?This question causes a huge debate.1.Some argued that it would be good for the US:Sell US goodsMilitary ports in pacific2. Others felt it went against what America stood forLiberty and Justice for allPresident McKinley eventually decides to annex the PhilippinesWhy do the Philippines feel betrayed?
13The Platt AmendmentThe United States promised Cuba independence under the following conditions:1. Cuba cold not make any treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence.2. Cuba had to allow the US to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba.3. Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent foreign troops from enforceing payment.4. The US would have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order.Are these provisions fair?Explain
14Puerto RicoThe Foraker Act (1900) established a civil government for the island, that gave the President (of the US) final authority. Citizens of Puerto Rico were not considered US citizens.In 1917 Puerto Rico citizens were granted United States citizenship. The debate began over whether or not to make Puerto Rico a state.This debate is still taking place today!
15The Philippine Insurrection What was it? A three year “war” over control of the Philippines between the US and the Philippines.Many losses on both sides due to disease and combat.William Howard Taft, the governor of the island, tries to improve education, transportation, and healthcare to help ease tension.By 1902 the fighting was over, and in 1946 the United States granted independence to the Philippines.