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Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy McKay 826-829 Section 13.64:

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Presentation on theme: "Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy McKay 826-829 Section 13.64:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy McKay 826-829 Section 13.64:

2 Italian Unification 18051831 1848 185018611871 Napoleon I crowns self King of Italy "Young Italy" founded by Mazzini. Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont; in Rome, Republic proclaimed with Mazzini as head Charles Albert invades Lombardy; Union of Venetia and Piedmont declared, but after Battle of Custozza, Charles Albert defeated Charles Albert abdicates in favor of Victor Emmanuel II (1849) Cavour becomes Prime Minister in Sardinia- Piedmont War between Austria and Sardinia Piedmont & France - Sardinia gains Lombardy Garibaldi invades Sicily & Italy -Piemontese army under Victor Emmanuel take over from Garibaldi Kingdom of Italy proclaimed Italian troops occupy Rome when French abandon city; 1871 (July) Rome made Capital of Kingdom

3 Italian Unification The patriotism of the Italians is like that of the ancient Greeks, and is love of a single town, not of a country; it is the feeling of a tribe, not of a nation. Only by foreign conquest have they ever been united. Leave them to themselves and they split into fragments. –Contemporary analysis [Italy is] a geographic expression –Metternich

4 Nationalism Stems from a shared sense of regional and cultural identity Nationalism combines with: –Liberalism Movement towards modernization, both economic and political unity –Zollverein = free trade zone which united German states (Prussia) –Romanticism & Republicanism emphasized the importance of culture and cultural uniqueness (Herder, Father Jahn) Studied Volksgeist and national history (Grim Brothers) Way to resist French occupation rejected the universality of Enlightenment and stated that each country had its own unique values Socialist Marxism rejects nationalism –View “class consciousness” as a universal & scientific fact –Nationalism is a bourgeoisie invention

5 Barriers to Italian Unification Sectionalism –Northern Italy (Piedmont) industrialized, centralized bureaucracy –Southern Italy (Naples & Sicily) Agrarian, poor Pope Pius IX –Had been sympathetic but after 1848 he denounced the isms of modernity “The Roman pontiff can and ought to reconcile …himself with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization.” Syllabus of Errors Austria –Held northern Italian territories of Lombardy, Venetia after 1815 –Parma, Tuscany, and Modena satellites

6 Italian Nationalism Italy was reorganized by Napoleon I and the Congress of Vienna –governments content with their independence –but governments were distant from their people Italian desire for unification fanned by Risorgimento Risorgimento= resurgence –Romantic movement for Italian national unity and independence, begun 1815 –Issued pamphlets glorifying Roman Empire, Italian uniqueness, and predicting future Italian greatness Italy will be united through “The Heart, The Head, and the Sword”

7 Giuseppe Mazzini (The Heart) “the spirit” or “the heart” of Italian Unification, one of the first Italian nationalists a romantic, liberal, utopian republican Wanted: –democratic republican gov. –based on universal male suffrage –Written constitution saw the expression of natural communities, the basis for popular democracy and international brotherhood Founded Young Italy –Secret society –Engaged in conspiracies and propaganda –Superseded by Risorgimento never succeeded His big chance came in 1848, but, when Austria regained control, Mazzini left 1805-1872

8 Giuseppe Mazzini (1805­1872), the founder (1831) of Young Italy It was not for a material interest that the people of Vienna fought in 1848; in weakening the empire they could only lose power. It was not for an increase of wealth that the people of Lombardy fought in the same year; the Austrian Government had endeavoured in the year preceding to excite the peasants against the landed proprietors, as they had done in Gallicia; but everywhere they had failed. They struggled, they still struggle, as do Poland, Germany, and Hungary, for country and liberty; for a word inscribed upon a banner, proclaiming to the world that they also live, think, love, and labour for the benefit of all. They speak the same language, they bear about them the impress of consanguinity, they kneel beside the same tombs, they glory in the same tradition; and they demand to associate freely, without obstacles, without foreign domination, in order to elaborate and express their idea; to contribute their stone also to the great pyramid of history.

9 Camillo di Cavour (The Head) King Victor Emmanuel’s (Savoy) Prime Minister Cavour was a Western liberal/Realpolitik practitioner believed in progress, tolerance, limited suffrage Directed an efficient government –Built up the infrastructure (RR, docks, agriculture) –Facilitated expansion of credit, lowering tariffs, promoted free trade –Limited the role of the Church Cut down number of holidays Taxed church property, made clergy subject to Civil Law Engineered the unification process saw nationalism as an avenue to modernization An Italian Realpolitik –Was not a romantic revolutionary like Mazzini Had tipped off Francis Joseph (Austria) of Mazzini’s planned insurrection in Lombardy in 1853 –Was not a republican (no universal suffrage) –Embraced the toughness of mind Allied Piedmont with France in Crimean War Why? –Wanted to gain favor of the French (army) –Piedmont could not oust Austria without French help

10 Napoleon III Saw himself as the apostle of modernity Had traveled Italy and participated in insurrections there in 1831 Italy was Bonaparte family’s ancestral home Believed in idea of “doctrine of nationalities” –Consolidation of nations meant progress agreed to help Pied. In war against Austria Would show France that he supported liberal causes (by fighting reactionary Austria) –Silence his critics Said he would support unity if “it could be justified in the eyes of diplomacy and even more in the eyes of public opinion…” Envisioned Italy as four confederated states under French domination Cavour promised Nap Nice and Savoy

11 Plombieres Agreement (1859) Plombieres Agreement –Treaty for war against Austria b/t Cavour & Louis Napoleon –stated that if Piedmont were at war w/Austria then France would back them up Cavour wanted Venetia and Lombardy –but he never intended to fully unify Italy Napoleon wanted – to weaken Austria –get Nice and Savoy –get back at the Austrians (for Congress of Vienna) All they needed was an excuse for war Austria did some stupid things: –it imposed military conscription on Venetia and Lombardy (super unpopular) –Demanded Piedmont totally disarm on border region or else war played right into Cavour’s hands

12 Napoleon’s Quandary French defeated Austria quickly But Prussia was mobilizing –Nervous about French sphere of influence Then something unexpected happened –Italy began to erupt with revolutionary activity –local governments were overthrown –Calls for unification with Piedmont were made Napoleon is no fan of revolution Papacy was threatened so French soldiers were sent in to protect pope –French Catholics resented the loss of the Pope’s temporal power –Blamed Napoleon for this godless war –Napoleon III was fighting on both sides of the war So Napoleon III quickly made peace with Austria This stupefied Cavour

13 Treaty of Villafranca (1859) Napoleon III made peace b/c he realizes he is falling into a trap (worried about Piedmont getting too strong)! Piedmont received Lombardi Austria kept Venetia Offered compromise to the Italian unity question Created a federal union of existing governments with the Pope in charge Not what Cavour or Piedmontese or the patriots wanted Revolution (from bottom up) continued and drove out rulers of Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Romagna Piedmont annexed these territories and held a plebiscites Pope excommunicated leaders –Romagna had been part of Papal States Reps from north Italy (except Venetia) met in Turin in 1860 and held first parliament of the new and improved Italy

14 Garibaldi (The Sword) 1860 Italy consists of three parts –Northern Piedmont –Papal States –Southern States (Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) ruled by Bourbon king in Naples Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Piedmont –The Lafayette of Italy (Hero of 2 worlds) –Soldier of fortune in Uruguay and the United States –Organized “Garabaldi’s Thousand” or “Red Shirts” 1, 150 personal followers –Led them on armed expedition to southern Italy Cavour closed his eyes to Garibaldi’s bold move Garibaldi sailed south and attacked The corrupt and unpopular governments (2 Sicilys ) collapse Garibaldi turned north toward Rome Potential move against the French in Rome and the Papacy threatened Cavour’s unification efforts

15 The Completion of Italian Unity Cavour anticipated Garibaldi’s move and sent troops southward while carefully avoiding Rome Garibaldi accepts Victor Emmanuel’s leadership and the north and south are joined with seceding Papal states Garibaldi now thought a monarchy was best solution for unification Rode in open carriage with Victor Emmanuel thru streets of Naples Approved overwhelmingly by Plebiscites 1861 Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed 1866 Venetia was added in return for Italian support of Prussia against Austria 1870 Rome was annexed after French troops withdrew during the Franco- Prussian War Italy was made by romance of Mazzini, audacity of Garibaldi and cunning of Cavour The Heart, the Sword, and the Head

16 Italia Irredentism Claims for an expanded Italy continued Nationalists want Dalmatian islands, Nice, Savoy Italia Irredentism- An unredeemed Italy –Has come to mean a demand for territory on nationalistic grounds Catholicism v Nationalism –Deep political differences between the Pope and the new nation of Italy continued –Occupation of Rome 1870 (after French left) renewed Pope’s condemnation –Italy took the Papal states –Pope secluded to Vatican city Sectionalism/Republicanism/Socialism v Nationalism –Great differences between northern and southern Italy continued to exist –North looks upon South as backward –Few within Italy possessed the vote Only 600 thou out of 20 mil can vote –fueled revolutionary discontent –Gradually the revolutionary movement shifted Marxian socialism, Anarchism, Syndicalism Garibaldi completes Italian unification & slips the Italian Boot on King Victor Emmanuel

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