Presentation on theme: "The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D. Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D. University of Washington."— Presentation transcript:
The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D. Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D. University of Washington
Acknowledgements Funded in part by Grant R13AG030995-01A1 from the National Institute on Aging The views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does mention by trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Work on the Seattle Longitudinal Study, data from which are reported here, has been supported by grants from: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD00367, 1963-1965; HD04476, 1970-1973) and the National Institute of Aging (AG00480, 1973-1979; AG03544, 1982-1986; (AG04470, 1984-1989; AG08055, 1980-2006; currently AG024102, 2005-2015 and AG027759, 2006-2008).
Scientific Collaborators Elizabeth Aylward Paul BaltesThomas Barrett Ute Bayen Hayden BothworthPaul Borghesani Julie Boron Barbara BuechGrace Caskie Heather Chipuer Theresa CooneyCindy de Frias Ranjana Dutta Dennis GerstorfMichael Gilewski Judith Gonda Kathy GribbinAnn Gruber-Baldini Christopher Hertzog Robert IntrieriGina Jay Alfred Kaszniak Iseli Krauss Eric Labouvie Karen Lala Thomas LedermannTara Madhyastha Heiner Maier Scott MaitlandAnn Nardi John Nesselroade Ha Nguyen Ann O’Hanlon Iris Parham Robert PlominSamuel Popkin Margaret Quayhagen Andrew RevellAnne Richards Amy Roth Lindsay RyanJohn Schulenberg Vicki Stone Charles StrotherLinda Teri Nicholas Turiano Gisela ViefFaika Zanjan Elizabeth Zelinski
The Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) Major Topics Age Changes and Age Differences Antecedents of Individual Differences in Aging Cohort & Generational Differences Interventions to Slow Cognitive Aging Family Studies Midlife Precursors of Cognitive Decline or Maintenance in Old Age
TBR Measures: Examples A. Psychomotor Speed: Composite of Two Measures: 1. Copying Paragraph “The DUKE carried a Sword.” 2. Giving Antonyms or Synonyms a. White - Black b. White - Pale B. Motor Cognitive Flexibility (Set Shifting): Composite of Measures 1. Ratio: Speed of Copying/Speed of Set Shifting (“The DUKE carried a Sword.”/”tHE duke CARRIED A sWORD” 2. Ratio: Antonyms or Synonyms Antonyms: WHITE - Black Synonyms: white - pale C. Attitudinal Flexibility: Questionnaire (T/F) “It bothers me if people can’t make up their mind.” “I would go into a theatre without buying a ticket.”
Training and Cognitive Impairment: 28-Year Data
Correlating Autopsy Findings with Cognitive Change
Current and Future Work with the Seattle Longitudinal Study Midlife Cognitive Change and Risk of Cognitive Decline
Key Questions: Is cognitive status and change in midlife predictive of Subsequent cognitive risk Successful aging Is midlife cognitive change related to brain volume and rate of change in brain volume? What behavioral and health factors are related to cognitive change in midlife and old age?
Background: Stability of cognitive functioning is normative in midlife Longitudinal studies indicate subgroups with cognitive decline or gain Prospective dementia studies indicate lengthy preclinical phase beginning in late midlife Multi-ability involvement in preclinical phase Cognitive reserve appears to develop early and may reduce risk of cognitive impairment Limited study of brain-behavior associations in midlife
SLS Sample: Older Cohort (b1914 - 1941) Ability data available in midlife and old age N = 332 Middle Age Cohort (b1942 - 1962) Ability data available in midlife N = 321
Development of Midlife Cognitive Risk Profile: 3 Abilities associated with Cognitive Impairment Episodic Memory Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife Executive Functioning Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife Psychomotor Speed Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife
Specificity of Midlife Change Patterns: Longitudinal Data Midlife Decline on Episodic Memory Midlife Gain on Episodic Memory
Adjusted means: ICV, Memory score age 60 Gainer - Old Age Decliner - Old Age Long term Outcomes of Midlife Cognitive Change: Hippocampal Volume in Old Age Borghesani et al. 2010 Scan OAScan MA Scan OA
.37** -.14.21* -.09* -.24*.06*.22**.33**.37**.28* Midlife Predictors: Level and Rate of Change in Memory & Executive Functions ( Predictors Common to Memory and Executive versus Unique to One Ability ) Willis et al., 2010
Work Environment in Midlife: Routinization in Work Activities
Societal Implications Normative Decline of Cognitive Abilities Does not Occur until the mid-60s Decline Does not Become Substantial until the late 70s or early 80s Successive Generations Attain Higher Levels of Function and Show Later Decline Normative Decline can be Slowed by Cognitive Training High Level of Educational and Occupational Status and Stimulating Environments Support Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Old Age
Implications for Clinical Practice Cognitive Decline Prior to Age 60 May be an Indicator of Neuro- or Psychopathology Midlife Cognitive Decline May be a Predictor of High Risk of Dementia in Old Age Cognitive Training May be a Useful Intervention for Delaying Onset of Clinically Diagnosable Dementia
Reference: Schaie, K. W. (2005). Developmental influences on adult intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Oxford University Press Web site URL: http://www.uwpsychiatry.org/sls