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The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D. Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D. University of Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D. Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D. University of Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D. Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D. University of Washington

2 Acknowledgements Funded in part by Grant R13AG030995-01A1 from the National Institute on Aging The views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does mention by trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 Work on the Seattle Longitudinal Study, data from which are reported here, has been supported by grants from: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD00367, 1963-1965; HD04476, 1970-1973) and the National Institute of Aging (AG00480, 1973-1979; AG03544, 1982-1986; (AG04470, 1984-1989; AG08055, 1980-2006; currently AG024102, 2005-2015 and AG027759, 2006-2008).

4 Scientific Collaborators Elizabeth Aylward Paul BaltesThomas Barrett Ute Bayen Hayden BothworthPaul Borghesani Julie Boron Barbara BuechGrace Caskie Heather Chipuer Theresa CooneyCindy de Frias Ranjana Dutta Dennis GerstorfMichael Gilewski Judith Gonda Kathy GribbinAnn Gruber-Baldini Christopher Hertzog Robert IntrieriGina Jay Alfred Kaszniak Iseli Krauss Eric Labouvie Karen Lala Thomas LedermannTara Madhyastha Heiner Maier Scott MaitlandAnn Nardi John Nesselroade Ha Nguyen Ann O’Hanlon Iris Parham Robert PlominSamuel Popkin Margaret Quayhagen Andrew RevellAnne Richards Amy Roth Lindsay RyanJohn Schulenberg Vicki Stone Charles StrotherLinda Teri Nicholas Turiano Gisela ViefFaika Zanjan Elizabeth Zelinski

5 The Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) Major Topics Age Changes and Age Differences Antecedents of Individual Differences in Aging Cohort & Generational Differences Interventions to Slow Cognitive Aging Family Studies Midlife Precursors of Cognitive Decline or Maintenance in Old Age

6 Conceptual Model of the SLS

7 Design of the Seattle Longitudinal Study Study Waves 19561963 1970 1977 1984 1991 1998 2005 S1T1 S1T2 S1T3 S1T4 S1T5 S1T6 S1T7 S1T8 (N = 500) (N = 303) (N = 162) (N = 130) (N = 92) (N = 71) (N = 38) (N = 26) S2T2 S2T3 S2T4 S2T5 S2T6 S2T7 S2T8 (N = 997) (N = 420) (N = 337) (N = 204) (N = 161) (N = 104) (N = 74) S3T3 S3T4 S3T5 S3T6 S3T7 S3T8 (N = 705) (N = 340) (N = 225) (N = 175) (N = 127) (N = 93) S4T4 S4T5 S4T6 S4T7 S4T8 (N = 612) (N = 294) (N = 201) (N = 136) (N = 119) S5T5 S5T6 S5T7 S5T8 (N = 628) (N = 428) (N = 266) (N = 186) S6T6 S6T7 S6T8 (N = 693) (N = 406) (N = 288 ) S7T7 S7T8 (N = 719) (N = 421) S = Sample; T = Time of Measurement

8 CognitivePersonlaityLifestyleHealthBiomarkers 5 PMA: Voc Reason, Number Space Fluency TBR 8 Activity Domains ICD-AAPO-E 6 Factors: Verbal Space Number Reason Memory Speed NEO Work Enviornment (Moos, Schooler) Self Report Lipids Homocystene C-Reactive Everyday Problems 13 PFFamily Environment PharmacyNeuroimaging Neuropsych Battery Demographics

9 ABILITIES Verbal Comprehension Spatial Orientation Inductive Reasoning Numeric Facility Perceptual Speed Verbal Memory

10 Examples of Ability Test Items

11 TBR Measures: Examples A. Psychomotor Speed: Composite of Two Measures: 1. Copying Paragraph “The DUKE carried a Sword.” 2. Giving Antonyms or Synonyms a. White - Black b. White - Pale B. Motor Cognitive Flexibility (Set Shifting): Composite of Measures 1. Ratio: Speed of Copying/Speed of Set Shifting (“The DUKE carried a Sword.”/”tHE duke CARRIED A sWORD” 2. Ratio: Antonyms or Synonyms Antonyms: WHITE - Black Synonyms: white - pale C. Attitudinal Flexibility: Questionnaire (T/F) “It bothers me if people can’t make up their mind.” “I would go into a theatre without buying a ticket.”

12 Cross-Sectional Age Differences

13 Longitudinal Age Changes

14 Longitudinal Changes: Cognitive Styles (TBR Factors)


16 Separating Cohort Differences from AGE Changes

17 Studying Cohort/Generational Differences: Cohort Studies Family Studies

18 Cohort Studies

19 Cohort Effects in Cognitive Styles (TBR)

20 The Family (Generational) Study Family Similarity in Intellectual Competence Family Similarity in Cognitive Style Similarity in Perception of Family Environment

21 Generational Difference in Abilities

22 New Family Studies Third Generation Study Studies of Rate of Change

23 Rate of Cognitive Change Inductive Reasoning

24 Rate of Cognitive Change Verbal Ability

25 Crystallized Abilities: Verbal Meaning 50607080 Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging: Higher Levels Shallower Rates of Decline among Later-Born Cohorts Fluid Abilities: Inductive Reasoning 50 607080 0.60 SD * 0.57 SD * Later-born cohorts (1914–1948) Earlier-born cohorts (1883–1913) Note. * p <.01 Note. Models covaried for gender, education, and presence of circulatory diseases. Gerstorf et al., 2009

26 Impact of Demographic Characteristics Education Occupation

27 Verbal Ability and Education

28 Verbal Ability and Occupation

29 Cognitive Interventions to Slow Aging Remediation or New Learning Need for Longitudinal Data Targets of Intervention Transfer of Training Maintenance of Effects

30 Design of Training Study within SLS

31 Results of Cognitive Training

32 Maintenance of Cognitive Training Over 14 Years

33 Early Detection of Risk of Dementia Neuropsychology Studies in Community Dwelling Persons Genetic Studies: The ApoE Gene Cognitive Training as Early Predictor of Impairment

34 Population Screened

35 Training and Cognitive Impairment: 28-Year Data

36 Correlating Autopsy Findings with Cognitive Change

37 Current and Future Work with the Seattle Longitudinal Study Midlife Cognitive Change and Risk of Cognitive Decline

38 Key Questions: Is cognitive status and change in midlife predictive of Subsequent cognitive risk Successful aging Is midlife cognitive change related to brain volume and rate of change in brain volume? What behavioral and health factors are related to cognitive change in midlife and old age?

39 Background: Stability of cognitive functioning is normative in midlife Longitudinal studies indicate subgroups with cognitive decline or gain Prospective dementia studies indicate lengthy preclinical phase beginning in late midlife Multi-ability involvement in preclinical phase Cognitive reserve appears to develop early and may reduce risk of cognitive impairment Limited study of brain-behavior associations in midlife

40 SLS Sample: Older Cohort (b1914 - 1941) Ability data available in midlife and old age N = 332 Middle Age Cohort (b1942 - 1962) Ability data available in midlife N = 321

41 Development of Midlife Cognitive Risk Profile: 3 Abilities associated with Cognitive Impairment Episodic Memory Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife Executive Functioning Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife Psychomotor Speed Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife


43 Specificity of Midlife Change Patterns: Longitudinal Data Midlife Decline on Episodic Memory Midlife Gain on Episodic Memory

44 Adjusted means: ICV, Memory score age 60 Gainer - Old Age Decliner - Old Age Long term Outcomes of Midlife Cognitive Change: Hippocampal Volume in Old Age Borghesani et al. 2010 Scan OAScan MA Scan OA

45 .37** -.14.21* -.09* -.24*.06*.22**.33**.37**.28* Midlife Predictors: Level and Rate of Change in Memory & Executive Functions ( Predictors Common to Memory and Executive versus Unique to One Ability ) Willis et al., 2010

46 Engagement in Midlife: Intellectual Activities

47 Work Environment in Midlife: Routinization in Work Activities

48 Societal Implications Normative Decline of Cognitive Abilities Does not Occur until the mid-60s Decline Does not Become Substantial until the late 70s or early 80s Successive Generations Attain Higher Levels of Function and Show Later Decline Normative Decline can be Slowed by Cognitive Training High Level of Educational and Occupational Status and Stimulating Environments Support Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Old Age

49 Implications for Clinical Practice Cognitive Decline Prior to Age 60 May be an Indicator of Neuro- or Psychopathology Midlife Cognitive Decline May be a Predictor of High Risk of Dementia in Old Age Cognitive Training May be a Useful Intervention for Delaying Onset of Clinically Diagnosable Dementia

50 Reference: Schaie, K. W. (2005). Developmental influences on adult intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Oxford University Press Web site URL:

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