Presentation on theme: "The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D.Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D.University of Washington
2 AcknowledgementsFunded in part by Grant R13AG A1 from the National Institute on AgingThe views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does mention by trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
3 Work on the Seattle Longitudinal Study, data from which are reported here, has been supported by grants from: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD00367, ; HD04476, ) and the National Institute of Aging (AG00480, ; AG03544, ; (AG04470, ; AG08055, ; currently AG024102, and AG027759, ).
4 Scientific Collaborators Elizabeth Aylward Paul Baltes Thomas BarrettUte Bayen Hayden Bothworth Paul BorghesaniJulie Boron Barbara Buech Grace CaskieHeather Chipuer Theresa Cooney Cindy de FriasRanjana Dutta Dennis Gerstorf Michael GilewskiJudith Gonda Kathy Gribbin Ann Gruber-BaldiniChristopher Hertzog Robert Intrieri Gina JayAlfred Kaszniak Iseli Krauss Eric LabouvieKaren Lala Thomas Ledermann Tara MadhyasthaHeiner Maier Scott Maitland Ann NardiJohn Nesselroade Ha Nguyen Ann O’HanlonIris Parham Robert Plomin Samuel PopkinMargaret Quayhagen Andrew Revell Anne RichardsAmy Roth Lindsay Ryan John SchulenbergVicki Stone Charles Strother Linda TeriNicholas Turiano Gisela Vief Faika ZanjanElizabeth Zelinski
5 The Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) Major Topics Age Changes and Age DifferencesAntecedents of Individual Differences in AgingCohort & Generational DifferencesInterventions to Slow Cognitive AgingFamily StudiesMidlife Precursors of Cognitive Decline or Maintenance in Old Age
11 TBR Measures: Examples A. Psychomotor Speed:Composite of Two Measures:1. Copying Paragraph“The DUKE carried a Sword.”2. Giving Antonyms or Synonymsa. White - Blackb. White - PaleB. Motor Cognitive Flexibility (Set Shifting):Composite of Measures1. Ratio: Speed of Copying/Speed of Set Shifting(“The DUKE carried a Sword.”/”tHE duke CARRIED A sWORD”2. Ratio: Antonyms or SynonymsAntonyms: WHITE - BlackSynonyms: white - paleC. Attitudinal Flexibility:Questionnaire (T/F)“It bothers me if people can’t make up their mind.”“I would go into a theatre without buying a ticket.”
35 Training and Cognitive Impairment: 28-Year Data
36 Correlating Autopsy Findings with Cognitive Change
37 Current and Future Work with the Seattle Longitudinal Study Midlife Cognitive Change and Risk of Cognitive Decline
38 Key Questions: Is cognitive status and change in midlife predictive of Subsequent cognitive riskSuccessful agingIs midlife cognitive change related to brain volume and rate of change in brain volume?What behavioral and health factors are related to cognitive change in midlife and old age?
39 Background: Stability of cognitive functioning is normative in midlife Longitudinal studies indicate subgroups with cognitive decline or gainProspective dementia studies indicate lengthy preclinical phase beginning in late midlifeMulti-ability involvement in preclinical phaseCognitive reserve appears to develop early and may reduce risk of cognitive impairmentLimited study of brain-behavior associations in midlife
40 SLS Sample: Older Cohort (b1914 - 1941) Ability data available in midlife and old ageN = 332Middle Age Cohort (b )Ability data available in midlifeN = 321
41 Executive Functioning Development of Midlife Cognitive Risk Profile: 3 Abilities associated with Cognitive ImpairmentEpisodic MemoryReliable decline, stable, or gain in midlifeExecutive FunctioningPsychomotor Speed
43 Specificity of Midlife Change Patterns: Longitudinal Data Midlife Decline on Episodic MemoryMidlife Gain on Episodic Memory
44 Long term Outcomes of Midlife Cognitive Change: Hippocampal Volume in Old AgeScan MAScan OAScan OAScan MADecliner - Old AgeGainer - Old AgeAdjusted means: ICV, Memory score age 60Borghesani et al. 2010
45 Level and Rate of Change in Memory & Executive Functions Midlife Predictors:Level and Rate of Change in Memory & Executive Functions(Predictors Common to Memory and Executive versus Unique to One Ability)EXAGE46EXAGE53EXAGE60EXAGE67EXAGE74Ex IntEx LinEx QuadTDLAGE53TDLAGE60TDLAGE67TDLAGE74DR IntDR LinCOMORBIDITYAPOE4MCRInt ACTIVITIESYR EDUCGENDER.37**-.14.21*-.09*-.24*.06*.37**.33**.22**.28*Willis et al., 2010
46 Engagement in Midlife: Intellectual Activities 46
47 Work Environment in Midlife: Routinization in Work Activities 47
48 Societal Implications Normative Decline of Cognitive Abilities Does not Occur until the mid-60sDecline Does not Become Substantial until the late 70s or early 80sSuccessive Generations Attain Higher Levels of Function and Show Later DeclineNormative Decline can be Slowed by Cognitive TrainingHigh Level of Educational and Occupational Status and Stimulating Environments Support Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Old Age
49 Implications for Clinical Practice Cognitive Decline Prior to Age 60 May be an Indicator of Neuro- or PsychopathologyMidlife Cognitive Decline May be a Predictor of High Risk of Dementia in Old AgeCognitive Training May be a Useful Intervention for Delaying Onset of Clinically Diagnosable Dementia
50 Web site URL: http://www.uwpsychiatry.org/sls Reference: Schaie, K. W. (2005). Developmental influences on adult intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Oxford University PressWeb site URL: