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The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future

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Presentation on theme: "The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Past, Present and Future
K. Warner Schaie, Ph.D. Sherry L. Willis, Ph.D. University of Washington

2 Acknowledgements Funded in part by Grant R13AG A1 from the National Institute on Aging The views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does mention by trade names, commercial practices, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

3 Work on the Seattle Longitudinal Study, data from which are reported here, has been supported by grants from: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD00367, ; HD04476, ) and the National Institute of Aging (AG00480, ; AG03544, ; (AG04470, ; AG08055, ; currently AG024102, and AG027759, ).

4 Scientific Collaborators
Elizabeth Aylward Paul Baltes Thomas Barrett Ute Bayen Hayden Bothworth Paul Borghesani Julie Boron Barbara Buech Grace Caskie Heather Chipuer Theresa Cooney Cindy de Frias Ranjana Dutta Dennis Gerstorf Michael Gilewski Judith Gonda Kathy Gribbin Ann Gruber-Baldini Christopher Hertzog Robert Intrieri Gina Jay Alfred Kaszniak Iseli Krauss Eric Labouvie Karen Lala Thomas Ledermann Tara Madhyastha Heiner Maier Scott Maitland Ann Nardi John Nesselroade Ha Nguyen Ann O’Hanlon Iris Parham Robert Plomin Samuel Popkin Margaret Quayhagen Andrew Revell Anne Richards Amy Roth Lindsay Ryan John Schulenberg Vicki Stone Charles Strother Linda Teri Nicholas Turiano Gisela Vief Faika Zanjan Elizabeth Zelinski

5 The Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) Major Topics
Age Changes and Age Differences Antecedents of Individual Differences in Aging Cohort & Generational Differences Interventions to Slow Cognitive Aging Family Studies Midlife Precursors of Cognitive Decline or Maintenance in Old Age

6 Conceptual Model of the SLS

7 Design of the Seattle Longitudinal Study
Study Waves S1T1 S1T S1T S1T S1T S1T S1T S1T8 (N = 500) (N = 303) (N = 162) (N = 130) (N = 92) (N = 71) (N = 38) (N = 26) S2T2 S2T S2T S2T S2T S2T7 S2T8 (N = 997) (N = 420) (N = 337) (N = 204) (N = 161) (N = 104) (N = 74) S3T S3T S3T S3T S3T S3T8 (N = 705) (N = 340) (N = 225) (N = 175) (N = 127) (N = 93) S4T4 S4T S4T S4T S4T8 (N = 612) (N = 294) (N = 201) (N = 136) (N = 119) S5T5 S5T S5T S5T8 (N = 628) (N = 428) (N = 266) (N = 186) S6T S6T S6T8 (N = 693) (N = 406) (N = 288) S7T S7T8 (N = 719) (N = 421) S = Sample; T = Time of Measurement

8 Cognitive Personlaity Lifestyle Health Biomarkers 5 PMA: Voc Reason, Number Space Fluency TBR 8 Activity Domains ICD-A APO-E 6 Factors: Verbal Reason Memory Speed NEO Work Enviornment (Moos, Schooler) Self Report Lipids Homocystene C-Reactive Everyday Problems 13 PF Family Environment Pharmacy Neuroimaging Neuropsych Battery Demographics

9 ABILITIES Verbal Comprehension Spatial Orientation Inductive Reasoning
Numeric Facility Perceptual Speed Verbal Memory

10 Examples of Ability Test Items

11 TBR Measures: Examples
A. Psychomotor Speed: Composite of Two Measures: 1. Copying Paragraph “The DUKE carried a Sword.” 2. Giving Antonyms or Synonyms a. White - Black b. White - Pale B. Motor Cognitive Flexibility (Set Shifting): Composite of Measures 1. Ratio: Speed of Copying/Speed of Set Shifting (“The DUKE carried a Sword.”/”tHE duke CARRIED A sWORD” 2. Ratio: Antonyms or Synonyms Antonyms: WHITE - Black Synonyms: white - pale C. Attitudinal Flexibility: Questionnaire (T/F) “It bothers me if people can’t make up their mind.” “I would go into a theatre without buying a ticket.”

12 Cross-Sectional Age Differences

13 Longitudinal Age Changes

14 Longitudinal Changes: Cognitive Styles (TBR Factors)

15

16 Separating Cohort Differences from AGE Changes

17 Studying Cohort/Generational Differences:
Cohort Studies Family Studies

18 Cohort Studies

19 Cohort Effects in Cognitive Styles (TBR)

20 The Family (Generational) Study
Family Similarity in Intellectual Competence Family Similarity in Cognitive Style Similarity in Perception of Family Environment

21 Generational Difference in Abilities

22 New Family Studies Third Generation Study Studies of Rate of Change

23 Rate of Cognitive Change Inductive Reasoning

24 Rate of Cognitive Change Verbal Ability

25 Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging: Higher Levels Shallower Rates of Decline among Later-Born Cohorts Fluid Abilities: Inductive Reasoning Crystallized Abilities: Verbal Meaning 50 60 70 80 0.60 SD * 60 70 80 0.57 SD * 50 Later-born cohorts (1914–1948) Earlier-born cohorts (1883–1913) Note. Models covaried for gender, education, and presence of circulatory diseases. Gerstorf et al., 2009 Note. * p < .01

26 Impact of Demographic Characteristics
Education Occupation

27 Verbal Ability and Education

28 Verbal Ability and Occupation

29 Cognitive Interventions to Slow Aging
Remediation or New Learning Need for Longitudinal Data Targets of Intervention Transfer of Training Maintenance of Effects

30 Design of Training Study within SLS

31 Results of Cognitive Training

32 Maintenance of Cognitive Training Over 14 Years

33 Early Detection of Risk of Dementia
Neuropsychology Studies in Community Dwelling Persons Genetic Studies: The ApoE Gene Cognitive Training as Early Predictor of Impairment

34 Population Screened

35 Training and Cognitive Impairment: 28-Year Data

36 Correlating Autopsy Findings with Cognitive Change

37 Current and Future Work with the Seattle Longitudinal Study
Midlife Cognitive Change and Risk of Cognitive Decline

38 Key Questions: Is cognitive status and change in midlife predictive of
Subsequent cognitive risk Successful aging Is midlife cognitive change related to brain volume and rate of change in brain volume? What behavioral and health factors are related to cognitive change in midlife and old age?

39 Background: Stability of cognitive functioning is normative in midlife
Longitudinal studies indicate subgroups with cognitive decline or gain Prospective dementia studies indicate lengthy preclinical phase beginning in late midlife Multi-ability involvement in preclinical phase Cognitive reserve appears to develop early and may reduce risk of cognitive impairment Limited study of brain-behavior associations in midlife

40 SLS Sample: Older Cohort (b1914 - 1941)
Ability data available in midlife and old age N = 332 Middle Age Cohort (b ) Ability data available in midlife N = 321

41 Executive Functioning
Development of Midlife Cognitive Risk Profile: 3 Abilities associated with Cognitive Impairment Episodic Memory Reliable decline, stable, or gain in midlife Executive Functioning Psychomotor Speed

42

43 Specificity of Midlife Change Patterns: Longitudinal Data
Midlife Decline on Episodic Memory Midlife Gain on Episodic Memory

44 Long term Outcomes of Midlife Cognitive Change:
Hippocampal Volume in Old Age Scan MA Scan OA Scan OA Scan MA Decliner - Old Age Gainer - Old Age Adjusted means: ICV, Memory score age 60 Borghesani et al. 2010

45 Level and Rate of Change in Memory & Executive Functions
Midlife Predictors: Level and Rate of Change in Memory & Executive Functions (Predictors Common to Memory and Executive versus Unique to One Ability) EXAGE46 EXAGE53 EXAGE60 EXAGE67 EXAGE74 Ex Int Ex Lin Ex Quad TDLAGE53 TDLAGE60 TDLAGE67 TDLAGE74 DR Int DR Lin COMORBIDITY APOE4 MCR Int ACTIVITIES YR EDUC GENDER .37** -.14 .21* -.09* -.24* .06* .37** .33** .22** .28* Willis et al., 2010

46 Engagement in Midlife: Intellectual Activities
46

47 Work Environment in Midlife: Routinization in Work Activities
47

48 Societal Implications
Normative Decline of Cognitive Abilities Does not Occur until the mid-60s Decline Does not Become Substantial until the late 70s or early 80s Successive Generations Attain Higher Levels of Function and Show Later Decline Normative Decline can be Slowed by Cognitive Training High Level of Educational and Occupational Status and Stimulating Environments Support Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Old Age

49 Implications for Clinical Practice
Cognitive Decline Prior to Age 60 May be an Indicator of Neuro- or Psychopathology Midlife Cognitive Decline May be a Predictor of High Risk of Dementia in Old Age Cognitive Training May be a Useful Intervention for Delaying Onset of Clinically Diagnosable Dementia

50 Web site URL: http://www.uwpsychiatry.org/sls
Reference: Schaie, K. W. (2005). Developmental influences on adult intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Oxford University Press Web site URL:


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