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1 Run Time: [01:41:52] This riveting two-hour special investigates a new image of the Vikings that goes far deeper than their savage stereotype as raiding.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Run Time: [01:41:52] This riveting two-hour special investigates a new image of the Vikings that goes far deeper than their savage stereotype as raiding."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 Run Time: [01:41:52] This riveting two-hour special investigates a new image of the Vikings that goes far deeper than their savage stereotype as raiding marauders. Faithful replicas of their magnificent ships, life-like computer animation and fascinating recreations reveal the Vikings as canny merchants, expert shipbuilders, superb artisans, and bold colonizers of lands that lay beyond the edge of the known world.

3 2 Viking

4 3 Chapter 20 The Vikings Words, Terms and People to Know ► Vinland ► Erik the Red ► Ethelred ► Rurik ► Fjord ► Jarl ► Norselaw ► Rollo ► Jutland ► Leif Eriksson ► Berserkers ► Sagas ► Eddas ► Varangian Route ► Canute

5 4 Who Were the Vikings? The Vikings, or Norse, were a phenomenal race of Scandinavian warriors who raided Northern Europe, Eastern Asia, and Eastern North America. The exploits of the Norwegian vikings lead them west to settle into Iceland in 860 and later to colonize Greenland about a hundred years later. The Swedish Vikings set out across the Baltic Sea into Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Russia. By the end of the first millennium the Vikings reached North America five hundred years before Columbus. Vikings were not just pirates and warriors but also traders and colonists. The word Viking means one who lurks in a “Vik” or bay, in effect, a pirate. The word “Viking” also describes a whole new age in Europe between about the mid 700 to 1150 AD. This was a period of raiding as well as creating far trade networks of settlements by Scandinavians. Vikings were comprised of Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish decent.

6 Chapter 20 The Vikings 800A.D.—1035 A.D. Good Bye Charlemagne Between 800-1000 invasions completely destroyed the Carolingian Empire Muslim invaders from the south seized Sicily and raided Italy In the east the Magyars invade and terrorize Germany and Italy In the north, the most dreaded of all, the Vikings strike fear into the hearts of all God fearing Christians. (and everyone else too!) Purple Viking Invasion Routes Green Magyar Invasion Routes Brown Islamic Invasion Routes

7 The raids of the Vikings can be considered the last phase of the Germanic invasions begun in the 4 th century ► Reasons for the Viking Invasions  Climate would not support a large and growing Viking population  Constant warfare where a defeated chief would rather go elsewhere than accept vassalage. Life tended to be short and brutal. (chart)  Skilled and versatile seamen whose ships allowed them to go any where including areas with a very shallow draught. As this chart shows, 50% of adult men died between 21 and 30 years of age and this may be because of warfare and the generally turbulent times. For women, the risks were in pregnancy and childbirth and 35% of them did not survive beyond 30 years. The 31 to 40 year olds were the 'middle-aged' people of the Viking Age and 50 years of age would be thought of as 'old'. Women seem to have had an especially high death rate in the age group 41 to 50 when compared with the men, but this is because about eight out of ten of the adult men had already died at an earlier age. It was exceptional for anyone to reach what we would today call 'old age'. It has been estimated that about 17% of the population died in infancy, before reaching five years of age. About 16% did not survive to around 20 years of age. In all, more than 33% of the population did not reach adulthood.

8 7 Most accounts of Vikings are based upon recollections of victims and therefore biased ► Typically Viking  Trade  Raid  Settlement ► Join the Vikings! Meet strange …and kill them! ► Join the Vikings! Meet strange peoples…and kill them!  Attack cities along coastal areas  Penetrate deep into the Mediterranean  Invade the Rhone Valley  Sailed, rowed and carried boats over the Russian river system  Raid Constantinople ”From the fury of the Northmen, Good Lord deliver us!" prayed the priests, and the people joined fervently in the prayer prayer In 794 came another flock of these vultures of the sea, who robbed a church and a monastery, plundering and killing, and being killed in their turn when a storm wrecked their ships and threw them on shore. As a good monk writes of them: "The heathen came from the northern countries to Britain like stinging wasps, roamed about like savage wolves, robbing, biting, killing not only horses, sheep, and cattle, but also priests, acolytes, monks, and nuns."

9 8 What were their goals? Raids and loot were not the whole story of the Vikings. Land to farm was also a commodity. There were limited sources of food. They received influences from Europe that they saw as technologically and politically superior to their culture. Unlike many other invaders in history, the vikings weren’t trying to spread their religion that was paganism, rather gain new resources and new connections. They wanted political and economical advantage. They had to find food, live off the land, and set up shop. They drove people out and took their money and other valuables they had. Vikings targeted the church and monasteries, which were the major sources of wealth at the time. An accurate depiction of what a Viking looked like.

10 9 Gone in a ► The most amazing thing about Norse emigrations was the ephemeral nature of their settlements and kingdoms. ► The Norse quickly incorporated themselves into the existing populations and institutions and discard most distinctly “Viking” characteristics. ► We know most about their world view from Icelandic literature—especially the edda of Snorri Sturlusonan Icelandic historian, poet and politician. (1178-1241?) Icelandic

11 10 One of the earliest Icelandic Manuscripts in Old Norse, the Viking language. How do we know about the Vikings? Sources and Contemporary Accounts Vikings left many traces of their settlements that are still visible today. Archaeology provides physical evidence of their conquests, settlements, and daily life. Not a lot of evidence survives, and much of what we have is either uninformative or unreliable. Many popular ideas of Vikings are 19th century inventions, such as horns on helmets. Few historical records and contemporary written sources exist anymore. Surviving accounts of Viking activity was almost exclusively written by churchmen. These included monastic chronicles such as the Anglo Saxon chronicle, Frankish, and Irish Annals. The chronicles reflect the fact that Vikings attacked these monasteries for their wealth and the accounts had a hostile tone to give a popular image of Viking atrocities. The Vikings were considered heathens for their invasions in monasteries and as a result were portrayed in the worst possible way.

12 11 Samples of Viking language 8 year old Gisli from Reykjavik, Iceland talks to you in his native language, the genuine language of the Vikings. Listen to what he says: I'm a Viking from Iceland Ég er víkingur frá Íslandi. WAVAU Iceland is an island Ísland er eyja. WAVAU The vikings travelled a lot Víkingar ferðuðust mikið. WAVAU Greetings from Iceland Kveða frá Íslandi. WAVAU One, two, three, four Einn, tveir, Þrír, fjórir. WAVAU Good night Góða nótt. WAVAU

13 12 Run Time: [13:56] The authority of chieftains was dependent upon their ability to provide for their followers. In the early years of the Viking Age, the population of Scandinavia was on the rise, and so was the number of chieftains.

14 Chapter 20 The Vikings 800A.D.—1035 A.D. ► Section One: discusses the effects of geography on the development of the Vikings as seafaring people Extra Credit: view this 1958 spectacular and write a 250 word synopsis of the movie and earn points. Did Vikings really wear horns on their helmets?

15 I. The Land ► A. forests, rugged coastlines, natural harbors called fjords, the southern part called Jutland, or Denmark, was well suited for farming fjords ► B. Most of Scandinavia not suited to farming with rocky soil and a short growing season The Hardangerfjord in Hordaland, Norway.HordalandNorway The coastline of eastern Greenland, with its many fjords. At the bottom is the longest fjord in the world, Scoresby Sund.Scoresby Sund East Greenland coast

16 ► C. Ships and Trade ► 1. Viking long ships (see handout) ► 2. tall bows carved with shapes meant to frighten enemies and evil spirits of the ocean. ► 3. awning to protect from weather ► 4. slept in sleeping bags and carried bronze pots ► 5. plotted course from positions of sun and stars plotted ► 6. traded furs, hides, fish and slaves for silk, wine, wheat and silver

17 16 Ships and Navigation We know what their ships looked like because many vikings were buried with their goods that sometimes included their boats. They had swift wooden long ships, equipped with sails and oars. Shallow drought of these ships meant they were able to reach far inland by river or stream to strike and move before local forces could assemble. Ships had overlapping planks, and measured between 17.5m and 36m in length. They were steered by a single oar mounted on the starboard side. Reached an average speed of 10 to 11 knots Crews of 25 to 60 men would be common, but larger ships could carry over a hundred people. Sea battles were rare. They fought close to shore. Ships were roped together in lines to face an enemy fleet. Figureheads would be raised at stem and stern as a sign of war.

18 17

19 18 Viking Jutland (shown in orange) was used mostly for farming

20 Viking Voyages and Territories

21 I. cont.  D. Towns, Villages, and Jarls Villages ► 1. trade led to market towns  (a.) two main streets with booths  (b.) towns protected by mounds of earth, wooden walls and towers; houses had steep roofs and porches  (c.) most Vikings lived in scattered villages  (d.) no central govt., people divided into groups ruled by military chiefs called jarls.  (e.) Some jarls become strong enough to be declared kings  (f.) Warriors preferred to die by their own hand rather than give their enemies the satisfaction of capturing or killing them  (g.) Women given great respect  (h.) Men took great pride in their mustaches and beards p.303 Viking men first put on a long woolen shirt and long cloth trousers which were held up by a sash or a drawstring. On top of this was worn a sleeved jerkin or a three-quarter coat with a belt. On his feet he would wear socks and soft leather shoes or long leather boots. In battle he would wear an iron helmet and a mail-chain to protect himself.battle Viking women wore a long linen dress. It could be either plain or pleated. Over the dress they wore a long woolen tunic, a little like an apron. It was held up by a pair of brooches, sometimes joined by a chain or string of beads. Over the tunic she might wear a shawl. Her legs and feet were covered with thick woolly socks and soft leather shoes. Both men and women wore fur or woolen hats and cloaks in cold weather. The cloaks were fastened at the shoulder with a brooch or a pin. Houses of wealthy families probably had decorative wall hangings, or carvings, or possibly paintings. The sagas tell of elaborately decorated shields hung on the and tapestries hung to decorate the hall for feasts.

22 Viking House Reconstruction of housing Birka listen (help·info) (Birca in medieval sources),listenhelpinfo on the island of Björkö (literally: "Birch Island") in Sweden,Sweden What people ate and drank What did the population of a Viking town eat and drink? The evidence is that the people in one town, Jorvik, (present day York England) ate well and were not, in normal times, likely to have experienced much of a 'hungry gap' towards the end of winter. The main meat in the diet came from the domesticated animals - beef, pork, mutton and lamb, chicken and goose. Sometimes the meat of hunted animals and birds (especially deer, hares, moorland birds, woodland birds and waterfowl) was eaten. Fish also featured in the diet of the townspeople of Jorvik, both from the rivers and from the sea, though sea fish became more important in the eleventh century. Shellfish were eaten. Bread was made from wheat, barley and rye. Oats were grown and made into bread or cakes. Oatcakes were still made and called 'havercakes' or 'haverbread' in Yorkshire right up to the early twentieth century, from the Old Norse word for oats, 'hafre'. Sometimes the cereal grains would be steeped (or 'creed') in milk, or milk and water, to soften them; the mixture would then be cooked as porridge. Nuts such as hazelnuts and walnuts were eaten. Some of the vegetables we are familiar with today would have been available, including leeks, carrots, peas, field beans, parsnips, beet and the cabbage family. A variety of fruits and berries were eaten, amongst them plums, cherries, sloes, apples, blackberries, raspberries, dewberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries and rowanberries. Honey was used for sweetening and was also fermented to make mead. Hop remains have been found in the Jorvik excavations, showing that beer brewing went on. As with any town, most of the food would have come from the surrounding countryside. Though the townspeople may have kept a few poultry - and sometimes perhaps a pig - they were generally too busy and had too little room to produce much of their own food. They would have relied mainly on produce from the rich farmlands of the Vale of York. The town would have provided a steady, rich market for the people round about who worked the land and could produce more than they needed for themselves.

23 22 Average Heights in Northern Europe Estimated from Adult Male Skeletons

24 Section Two: describes the culture of the Viking people ► II. Daily Life ► A. The People ► B. Viking Warriors were called berserkers were ► Terms to Learn: Eddas ► C. Religion Religion  1. Viking gods variations of Germanic gods  2. Viking practices sacrifices to bargain with their gods  3. stories of the gods great deeds called “eddas”  4. sagas kept Viking traditions in the oral tradition ► (a.) sagas written down after 1100 ►  5. Vikings spoke one of for languages: Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, or Icelandic—all closely related to Germanic languages ► (a.) languages written in runes Death of Balder The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterzsed in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. [1] He was found in 1950 buried in a peat bog on the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark, which preserved his body. This is a historically important area inhabited by the Germanic peoples. His corpse is one of several well preserved bog bodies from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. [1]

25 24 Battles and Tactics Vikings had no professional standing army and tactics and discipline seemed at little development. They didn’t fight in regular formations Weapons training began at youth in hunting, sports, and raiding. Aspiring warriors wanted armed service so they clanged to famous fighters in order to be rewarded with weapons and fame of their own. A leader needed to wage war frequently in order to keep his followers and maintain power against rivals. In preparation for battle younger warriors would draw up a line with their shields to create a shield wall for better protection. Chiefs were well protected by a body guard. They would either capture and kill their enemies Many capturers would become slaves. The famous Berserker warriors fought in groups, and believed that Odin, their god of war, gave them both protection and superhuman powers so they had no need for armor. Berserker battles were intense and it’s said they bit on their shields and could ignore the pain of wounds. Many experienced vikings formed a wedge of 20 to 30 men and would then charge at the enemy. They fought mainly on foot. The largest armies may have been 4,000 to 7,000 men. After war Vikings would return to lives as farmers, merchants, craftsmen, or join other war-bands.

26 25 Offensive Weapons The main offensive weapons were the spear, sword, and battle-axe. They carried weapons not just for battle but also as a symbol of their owners’ class and wealth. Weapons were decorated with inlays, twisted wire and other accessories in silver, copper, and bronze. The spear was the common weapon with an iron blade 2m to 3m in length. Swords were a sign of high status because they were costly to make. The blades were usually double edged and up to 90cm. Many swords were given names.

27 26 Defensive Weapons There were circular shields up to one meter across that were carried. The shield may have been leather covered. Around 1000, the kite shaped shield was introduced to the Vikings to provide more protection for the legs. It was essential to wear thick padding underneath to absorb the force of blows or arrow strikes. Reindeer hide was used as armor. They used long tunics of mail armor reaching below the waist. They were not very protective. It took many hours to produce a shirt, making it very expensive. It’s likely they were worn more by leaders. Helmets were probably worn by leaders as well. Horned helmets also took great skill to produce. An accurate viking helmet left. The mail armor shown right. A modern myth!!!

28 27 The Sword and Ideology By Karl N E ► As early as the Bronze Age, was the sword the most important hand-weapon for the free Germanic warrior. They had an onion shape, and polished to shine like gold. In early times the swords was short, as the Roman ”gladius”, blade and handle was made from one cast. During the pre-Roman Iron Age, the handles were given the Gaulish ”ardennes”. Later, during the Migration- period the swords grew larger and were made an artwork in itself. Animals appeared on the grip which in many times were made from gold, magical figures, signs and runes began to spring forth.

29 28 ► The swords of Viking Age were more efficient, but also longer and heavier, the longest being around forty inches, but more normal at a length of two and one-half feet. The blade was called ”brand” and the grip ”hjalt”, connecting the grip was the upper and lower hjalt, protecting the hand from enemy cuts. swords of Viking Age swords of Viking Age

30 29 ► Some of the best blades were imported from the Frankish region. These swords were often damascened, a technique where iron and steel layers are repeatedly folded and hammered together, producing a hard but flexible blade. The grips were provided by Nordic craftsmen. The best swords were said to have been made by dwarves. These special swords had names, like Sigurd Fafnisbane had a sword named Gram, the Gothic royal sword´s name was Tyrfing. Fafnirs and later Olav Haraldssons swords were both named Hrotte. The sword of Odin was named Mimung. Sigurd

31 30 ► The swords were often given names of the smith, owner or its self-name in runes. This could also hold some sort of magical curse or ”mal”. Along the swordblade there was a shallow channel or a bloodgroove, in which the sword could hold a serpent image that was visible when blood covered the blade. At the sheath end there was often placed metal holding runes and there was also often a container holding magical items, often stones, that protected the blade.

32 31 ► From early times, the swords were often destroyed, bent or broken in an attempt to ”kill” the sword, or sacrifice it to the gods as a spoil of war. At burials, swords were often destroyed this way. They were laid down in the urne after it had been burnt on the funeral pyre with its owner. But swords could be powerful even after its owners death. From Snorri´s Heimskringla, there is witness of the importance of the sword, and how grave-mounds of former kings are opened by their successors.

33 32 ► This is the case with Olav Haraldsson, the Christian martyr and murderer of heathens, who takes up the sword from the pagan Olav Digerbein´s grave-mound. Olav also bears his name, and both the power of the sword and of the name is passed down. There was in the Viking Age and in the early Middle Age, a fear of the living dead within the mounds. Sometimes these mounds were opened and the inside of the tomb were desecrated, and the bones scattered. The sword would disappear in this sort of ”grave-robbery”. The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsal in Sweden from the 5th and the 6th centuries.

34 33 ► Swords were sometimes made of different magical materials. When being made, the smith, could pour bonepowder from a dead person or from a powerful animal, making the sword invincible and connected to the persons’ strength or the character of the animal. The maker was considered a magician in his craft. It was him who controlled the fire and the secrets of iron and steel. It is easy to understand what power he held, as he was the creator of powerful weapons leading to the death of many great men.

35 34 ► In ways, the sword in Viking Age could be looked upon as an ideology, similar to the emerging warrior codex, which had a long past in Scandinavian pre-history. In the Viking Age a class of warriors distant to civil society becomes clearly visible. This is for example the case in Swedish Birka, where there was a garrison containing the warriors of the town. This part of the town was dedicated to the arts of war. In the Middle Ages, this warrior-class grew to be the future aristocracy of knighthood, and the sword remained their closest companion location of the former city of Birka near Stockholm

36 35 The Eddas There are also Norse oral religious traditions written as poems that are collectively named as Eddas. They are folktales. Eddas and Sagas weren’t written on paper. Instead on vellum- sheepskin or calf skin. Vellum is more resistant to rot and preserves much better than paper does. Thank god they used vellum!!

37 36 The Sagas “Saga” is a Norse word meaning tales. These writings provide almost all of the knowledge we have of the Vikings. There are about forty sagas that include descriptions of historical events in Iceland and voyages across the North Atlantic from Norway, Greenland and Vinland (Newfoundland). The sagas also have records of family history such as Erik the Red who founded Greenland, and his son Leif Erickson who discovered North America. The Sagas were compiled in the 13th and 14th century, and later based on stories that originated as early as 400 and 500 years before that. Archaeology is providing that a lot of these stories have a good basis of fact; in fact the Icelandic sagas were used to help find what might be the site of Vinland.

38 Write your name in Runes! ► Runes Through Time by Nicole Sanderson The Vikings are often portrayed as illiterate, uncultured barbarians who evinced more interest in plunder than in poetry. In fact, the Vikings left behind a great number of documents in stone, wood and metal, all written in the enigmatic symbols known as runes. They relied on these symbols not only for writing but also to tell fortunes, cast spells, and provide protection. Early Germanic tribes of northern Europe were first to develop runes, but the Scandinavians soon adopted the symbols for their own use. When the seafaring Vikings traveled to faraway lands, they brought their system of writing with them, leaving runic inscriptions in places as distant as Greenland.

39 ► Early Germanic tribes of northern Europe were first to develop runes, but the Scandinavians soon adopted the symbols for their own use. When the seafaring Vikings traveled to faraway lands, they brought their system of writing with them, leaving runic inscriptions in places as distant as Greenland. ► Wherever they went, Vikings turned to runes to express both the poetic ("Listen, ring-bearers, while I speak/Of the glories in war of Harald, most wealthy") and the prosaic ("Rannvieg owns this box"), inscribing them on everything from great stone monuments to common household items. household  Runes used as magic charms  When Vikings accepted Christianity began writing in Roman letters Viking rune characters were also inscribed on thumb-sized stones. They were placed in bags and removed one by one by Viking fortunetellers and magicians to tell the future, heal the sick, banish evil, or bless people, places, and things.

40 Section Three: discusses Viking influences in England, France, Russia and the North Atlantic ► III. Raiders and Adventurers  A. By 800, due to population increases, Vikings began to seek their fortunes in other lands  B. From east Europe to North America America ► 1. establish trade routes from the Baltic to the Black Sea and on to Byzantium. Water route known as Varangian Route. ► 2. 862 Swedish chief Rurik founded settlement that became Kievan Rus state in Russia ► 3. Norwegian Vikings set up trading towns in Ireland ► 4. Erik the Red founds a colony on Greenland in 986 ► 5. Leif Eriksson lands on northeast coast of North America 1000 A.D. and founds a colony they called Vinland. ► 6. Europe feared the Vikings

41  C. The Danes  1. Viking raiders of western and southern Europe  2. set up settlements in the Danelaw regon—eventually become known as Normans  3. 954 heir of Alfred the Great forces them to leave. ► (a.) Ethelred,King of England nicknamed the Unready, by his weakness encouraged Danish attacks  4. 1016 Danish king Canute conquered England ► (a.) Canute converts to Christianity ► (b.) In 1035 after Canute dies the Danes lose control of England King Canute on the Seashore Book of Virtues Long ago, England was ruled by a king named Canute. Like many leaders and men of power, Canute was surrounded by people who were always praising him. Every time he walked into a room, the flattery began. "You are the greatest man that ever lived," one would say. "O king, there can never be another as mighty as you," another would insist. "Your highness, there is nothing you cannot do," someone would smile. "Great Canute, you are the monarch of all," another would sing. "Nothing in this world dares to disobey you." The king was a man of sense, and he grew tired of hearing such foolish speeches. One day he was walking by the seashore, and his officers and courtiers were with him, praising him as usual. Canute decided to teach them a lesson. "So you say I am the greatest man in the world?" he asked them. "O king," they cried, "there never has been anyone as mighty as you, …” The mortuary chest of Canute the Great (?994- 1035). Canute was King of England from 1016 to 1035, King of Denmark from 1018 to 1035, and Norway from 1028 to 1035. As a Danish prince, Canute won the alliance of Danes who had settled in England, and he conquered the island in 1018. When his brother Harold died that year, Canute added the crown of Denmark and repelled an invasion fleet from Sweden and Norway. By 1026, Canute had driven King Olaf the Stout from Norway, and he ruled there as well as in England and Denmark until his death in 1035. This chest containing the bones of Canute and his wife Emma is one of several mortuary receptacles that are atop the choir screen of Winchester Cathedral at London.

42  (b.) In 1035 after Canute dies the Danes lose control of England ► 5. Danes attack the French in 885 led by Rollo  (a.) 911 French king signs treaty with Rollo  (b.) Danes become Christian and promised loyalty to French king  (c.) Region of Danish settlement under Norselaw becomes known as Normandy. The Danes living on the coast of France become known as Normans Lion of Rollo, Ruler of Normandy Photo of Rollo statue depicted among the 6 dukes of Normandy in the town square of Falaise Rollo's grave at the cathedral of Rouencathedral of Rouen Rouen Cathedral was the world's tallest building from 1876 to 1880.*

43 42 Pick one of the following essay questions to prepare for the chapter 20 test. ► 1. How do you think life in the United States might be different today if the Vikings had established colonies where they landed in North America before the year 1000? ► 2. What effect did Vikings have on the development of Europe during the Middle Ages? ► 3. Write an essay explaining the effect Christianity had on Viking Life?

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