Presentation on theme: "PacifismJust WarCrusade. Matthew 5:21-22… “You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, 'Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject."— Presentation transcript:
Matthew 5:21-22… “You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, 'Do not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.' But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to his brother, 'Raca,' is answerable to the Sanhedrin. But anyone who says, 'You fool!' will be in danger of the fire of hell.
Matthew 5:39… But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.
Matthew 5:44… But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you...
Matthew 26:52… “Put your sword back in its place,” Jesus said to him, “for all who draw the sword will die by the sword.”
St. Augustine (4th Century) Plato Cicero (rules of war)(war on moral law) Holy Scripture
Just War Theory Romans 13:1-7… Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves.
For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer.
Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience. This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to governing. Give everyone what you owe him: If you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.
1 Timothy 2:1-2… I urge, then, first of all, that requests, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for everyone-- for kings and all those in authority, that we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness.
1 Peter 2:13-14… Submit yourselves for the Lord's sake to every authority instituted among men: whether to the king, as the supreme authority, or to governors, who are sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right.
Left: TemporalRight: Spiritual Tools: Sword, Laws, Human Reason Purpose: Peace, Justice Tools: Holy Spirit, Word, God’s Reason Purpose: Followers of Jesus
Problems With Pacifism: Confuses morality of individual with morality of the state Abandonment of world to evil Misunderstanding of human nature
Problems With Crusade: Dominance of Church over the world. Church incorrectly identifies itself with function of the government.
Ethical Framework for “Just War Theory” Just Cause Last resort Formal declaration Just intention Principle of proportionality Principle of Discrimination Principle of limited objectives
Problem with “Just War Theory” Weapons of mass destruction
1990-95, 70 governments, 93 wars, 5.5 million people dead, mostly civilians. Beginning of this century, 85% of war casualties were military. In World War II, 1/2 of war deaths were civilians. At the end of 20th century, 3/4 of war deaths are civilians. --Timothy J. Demy, Christian Perspective On War