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Living in the Ottoman Empire Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p.578- 579 and Ottomans, The New Champions.

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Presentation on theme: "Living in the Ottoman Empire Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p.578- 579 and Ottomans, The New Champions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Living in the Ottoman Empire Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p and Ottomans, The New Champions of Islam Handout. ProsCons

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3 The Ottoman Empire Empire of Faith: Ottomans Empire of Faith: Ottomans Empire of Faith: Ottomans

4 The Ottomans :#1 Turkish speaking from Central Asia Turkish speaking from Central Asia Muslim Muslim The last great Islamic empire in the world ( ) The last great Islamic empire in the world ( )

5 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Beginning 0-4:10 Beginning 0-4:10

6 #2 Osman I ( ) #2 founded Ottomans founded Ottomans Ghazis: Islamic warriors who would conquer lands for plunder, glory, and to spread Islam Ghazis: Islamic warriors who would conquer lands for plunder, glory, and to spread Islam Ghazis took control of old Seljuk territories, and expanded into Christian-held lands Ghazis took control of old Seljuk territories, and expanded into Christian-held lands

7 The Ottomans Osman I and his Ghazi Warriors

8 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Devshirme 4:10 – 11:05 Devshirme 4:10 – 11:05

9 Civil Service and Social Structure Devshirme Practice of taking Christian boys between years of age, converting them to Islam, and training them for positions in either: Practice of taking Christian boys between years of age, converting them to Islam, and training them for positions in either: a) military – “Men of the Sword” b) civil service – “Men of the Pen”

10 Civil Service and Social Structure Janissaries were trained as elite infantry in the Ottoman military were trained as elite infantry in the Ottoman militaryVizier High-ranking advisor to the Sultan. Often came from the devshirme system High-ranking advisor to the Sultan. Often came from the devshirme system

11 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Sultan Mehmet II 11: :55 Sultan Mehmet II 11: :55

12 Sultan Mehmet II (1400) Sultan Mehmet II (1400) conquered Constantinople conquered Constantinople renamed it Istanbul renamed it Istanbul new capital of the Ottoman Empire new capital of the Ottoman Empire ended Byzantine Empire ended Byzantine Empire #3 #3

13 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Cannons and Strategy 12:55- 16:24 Cannons and Strategy 12:55- 16:24

14 Expansion Under their leader, Mehmet II, the Ottomans besiege and capture Constantinople 1453 Under their leader, Mehmet II, the Ottomans besiege and capture Constantinople 1453 This is a serious blow, as well as a threat, to Christian Europe. This is a serious blow, as well as a threat, to Christian Europe. Ottomans were the first to use large numbers of muskets and cannons, which gave them military and technological superiority Ottomans were the first to use large numbers of muskets and cannons, which gave them military and technological superiority

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16 Siege of Constantinople

17 The battle for Constantinople

18 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Siege of Constantinople 16:24 – 21:29 Siege of Constantinople 16:24 – 21:29

19 Expansion The Ottomans then begin to expand eastward into Muslim-controlled territory The Ottomans then begin to expand eastward into Muslim-controlled territory Selim the Grim comes to power in 1512 after murdering his father and brothers Selim the Grim comes to power in 1512 after murdering his father and brothers Selim was an effective Sultan and General Selim was an effective Sultan and General Sultan: title of Ottoman rulers

20 Expansion Selim captures Arabia, Palestine, Persia, Syria, and sections of Egypt. Selim captures Arabia, Palestine, Persia, Syria, and sections of Egypt. Captures the holy cities of Mecca and Medina Captures the holy cities of Mecca and Medina Ottomans now control much of the territory of the original Umayyad and Abbassid Caliphates Ottomans now control much of the territory of the original Umayyad and Abbassid Caliphates Turkish Sultans would later take the title of caliph, giving them religious authority Turkish Sultans would later take the title of caliph, giving them religious authority

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22 Ottoman Expansion

23 What was the source of Ottoman power? #4

24 1. Political Stability 1. Political Stability skillful gov’t, bureaucracy

25 2. Control of Trade Location Location Control of the Waterways Control of the Waterways

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27 3. Wealth from trade and taxes

28 The lavishly decorated throne room of Topkapi Palace, home to Ottoman rulers until the early 20th century.

29 4. Superior technology (the benefit of diffusion)

30 Suleiman the Magnificent Ottoman Empire reaches its height under Selim’s son, Suleiman. Ottoman Empire reaches its height under Selim’s son, Suleiman. Suleiman rules for 46 years, from 1520 to 1566 Suleiman rules for 46 years, from 1520 to 1566

31 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Suleiman 21:29 – 24:48 Suleiman 21:29 – 24:48

32 Suleiman the Magnificent His was sometimes called Suleiman the Lawgiver or Suleiman the Magnificent. His was sometimes called Suleiman the Lawgiver or Suleiman the Magnificent. Suleiman was also a great general. His armies conquered much of southern Europe (The Balkans) and North Africa – expands empire Suleiman was also a great general. His armies conquered much of southern Europe (The Balkans) and North Africa – expands empire Expansion is finally stopped when he lays siege to Vienna, but fails to capture it. Expansion is finally stopped when he lays siege to Vienna, but fails to capture it.

33 Golden Age Sultan Suleiman I ( ) #5

34 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Suleiman 27:00 – 33:00 Suleiman 27:00 – 33:00

35 Show Suleiman the Magnificent

36 Living in the Ottoman Empire Pros and Cons (see chart)

37 Living in the Ottoman Empire Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p and Ottomans, The New Champions of Islam Handout. ProsCons

38 Sultan Suleiman I Magnificent or Lawgiver #5 skillful gov’t, bureaucracy Shariah - Timar Reforms to improve gov’t, justice and economy Tolerance - millets: Self go verning; non- Muslim communities but loyalty to Sultans #6 Improved lives of slaves art, literature, architecture “Turkish style” (minarets) Domed Mosque Janizary - Devshirme Prosperous people=more taxes Social Structure – set Men of the Pen Men of the Sword Ruled with absolute power By 1540 rule ½ “civilized world” decline = inflation/poverty capitulations

39 Civil Service and Social Structure Millets Provinces of the empire were allowed their own local government. Provinces of the empire were allowed their own local government. Non-Muslim communities were loyal to sultan but were ruled by own religious leaders Non-Muslim communities were loyal to sultan but were ruled by own religious leaders Included Jews, Armenians, Orthodox Christians Included Jews, Armenians, Orthodox Christians

40 Suleymaniye Mosque Istanbul, Turkey

41 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Currently a Museum, formerly an Imperial Mosque (1453–1931) and Roman Catholic Cathedral (1204– 1261); originally constructed as an Eastern Orthodox Cathedral (562– 1204, 1261–1453).

42 The "Blue Mosque" of Sultan Amet I in Istanbul, Turkey. It was designed by the architect Mehemed Aja and built between 1609 and 1616 A.D. The sultan wanted his mosque to rival, if not surpass, the splendor of Hagia Sophia. This gem of Islamic architecture is known as the "Blue Mosque" because of the use of that color in the tiles and frescoes that decorate its interior walls. It has six minarets, a unique configuration.

43 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Safavid Rivals 38:18 – 42:15 Safavid Rivals 38:18 – 42:15

44 Chief Rivals: Safavids #7 Abbas the Great (shah: Persian King) 1587 – 1629 #9 Abbas the Great (shah: Persian King) 1587 – 1629 #9 Persia (present day Iran) Capital: Isfahan Persia (present day Iran) Capital: Isfahan welcomed outside influence welcomed outside influence Trade and commerce Trade and commerce Disputes: #8 Disputes: #8 Control of Mesopotamia Control of Mesopotamia Religious: Religious: Safavids: Shiite Safavids: Shiite Ottomans: Sunni Ottomans: Sunni (Safavid from Islam DVD)

45 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Siege of Vienna and Death of Suleiman 42:50 – end Siege of Vienna and Death of Suleiman 42:50 – end Or 48:50 - end Or 48:50 - end

46 Siege of Vienna: 1525

47 Ottoman Empire in Decline #10 The Europeans destroyed their strengths.

48 Ottoman Strength #1: Control of trade. Europeans broke this strength by going around Africa and gaining control of trade. All water route Europeans broke this strength by going around Africa and gaining control of trade. All water route

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50 Ottoman Strength #2: Wealth Discovery of the Americas = fantastic wealth for Europe from Aztec and Inca gold and silver. Discovery of the Americas = fantastic wealth for Europe from Aztec and Inca gold and silver.

51 Ottoman Strength #3: Technology The industrial revolution surpassed the Ottoman superiority in technology The industrial revolution surpassed the Ottoman superiority in technology especially in production of weapons especially in production of weapons

52 The Empire Ends #11 Three reasons:

53 1.Nationalism: People ruled by the Ottomans wanted independence (Internal Force) Europeans: Serbs, Croats, Bulgarians, Greeks. Europeans: Serbs, Croats, Bulgarians, Greeks. Arabs Arabs

54 2. European Imperialism (External Force) Industrial revolution = need for raw materials Industrial revolution = need for raw materials European industries wanted new markets European industries wanted new markets Large Military forces to control trade = Navy Large Military forces to control trade = Navy

55 3. Competition between European nations led to WWI in 1914

56 Rise and Decline of Ottoman Empire Interactive Map Interactive Map Interactive Map Interactive Map

57 Causes of WWI Rise of Nationalism in Europe Rise of Nationalism in Europe Competition for Colonies Competition for Colonies Arms races and militarism Arms races and militarism Alliances Alliances

58 The Ottomans sided with Central Powers (Germany) and lost.

59 The Ottoman Empire along with its Arab territories were divided up between Great Britain and France.(mandates) Sykes-Picot Agreement

60 Mandates A territory administered but not owned by a member of the League of Nations.

61 Turkey becomes a nation (1923) Turkey becomes a nation (1923) Treaty of Lausanne


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