6 Osman I (1280-1324)#2 founded Ottomans Ghazis: Islamic warriors who would conquer lands for plunder, glory, and to spread IslamGhazis took control of old Seljuk territories, and expanded into Christian-held lands
8 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Devshirme 4:10 – 11:05
9 Civil Service and Social Structure DevshirmePractice of taking Christian boys between years of age, converting them to Islam, and training them for positions in either:a) military – “Men of the Sword”b) civil service – “Men of the Pen”
10 Civil Service and Social Structure Janissarieswere trained as elite infantry in the Ottoman militaryVizierHigh-ranking advisor to the Sultan. Often came from the devshirme system
11 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Sultan Mehmet II 11: :55
12 #3 Sultan Mehmet II (1400) conquered Constantinople renamed it Istanbulnew capital of the Ottoman Empireended Byzantine Empire#3
13 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Cannons and Strategy 12:55- 16:24
14 ExpansionUnder their leader, Mehmet II, the Ottomans besiege and capture Constantinople 1453This is a serious blow, as well as a threat, to Christian Europe.Ottomans were the first to use large numbers of muskets and cannons, which gave them military and technological superiority
18 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Siege of Constantinople 16:24 – 21:29
19 ExpansionThe Ottomans then begin to expand eastward into Muslim-controlled territorySelim the Grim comes to power in 1512 after murdering his father and brothersSelim was an effective Sultan and GeneralSultan: title of Ottoman rulers
20 ExpansionSelim captures Arabia, Palestine, Persia, Syria, and sections of Egypt.Captures the holy cities of Mecca and MedinaOttomans now control much of the territory of the original Umayyad and Abbassid CaliphatesTurkish Sultans would later take the title of caliph, giving them religious authority
28 The lavishly decorated throne room of Topkapi Palace, home to Ottoman rulers until the early 20th century.
29 4. Superior technology (the benefit of diffusion)
30 Suleiman the Magnificent Ottoman Empire reaches its height under Selim’s son, Suleiman.Suleiman rules for 46 years, from 1520 to 1566
31 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Suleiman 21:29 – 24:48
32 Suleiman the Magnificent His was sometimes called Suleiman the Lawgiver or Suleiman the Magnificent.Suleiman was also a great general. His armies conquered much of southern Europe (The Balkans) and North Africa – expands empireExpansion is finally stopped when he lays siege to Vienna, but fails to capture it.
36 Living in theOttoman EmpirePros and Cons(see chart)
37 Living in the Ottoman Empire Directions: Create a chart of pros and cons about living in the Ottoman Empire using p and Ottomans, The New Champions of Islam Handout.ProsCons
38 Sultan Suleiman I Magnificent or Lawgiver #5 skillful gov’t, bureaucracyShariah - TimarReforms to improve gov’t, justice and economyTolerance -millets:Self go verning; non-Muslim communities but loyalty to Sultans #6Improved lives of slavesart, literature, architecture“Turkish style” (minarets)Domed MosqueJanizary - DevshirmeProsperous people=more taxesSocial Structure – setMen of the PenMen of the SwordRuled with absolute powerBy 1540 rule ½ “civilized world”decline = inflation/poverty capitulations
39 Civil Service and Social Structure MilletsProvinces of the empire were allowed their own local government.Non-Muslim communities were loyal to sultan but were ruled by own religious leadersIncluded Jews, Armenians, Orthodox Christians
41 Currently a Museum, formerly an Imperial Mosque (1453–1931) and Roman Catholic Cathedral (1204–1261); originally constructed as an Eastern Orthodox Cathedral (562–1204, 1261–1453).Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
42 The "Blue Mosque" of Sultan Amet I in Istanbul, Turkey The "Blue Mosque" of Sultan Amet I in Istanbul, Turkey. It was designed by the architect Mehemed Aja and built between 1609 and 1616 A.D. The sultan wanted his mosque to rival, if not surpass, the splendor of Hagia Sophia. This gem of Islamic architecture is known as the "Blue Mosque" because of the use of that color in the tiles and frescoes that decorate its interior walls. It has six minarets, a unique configuration.
44 Chief Rivals: Safavids #7 Abbas the Great (shah: Persian King) 1587 – 1629 #9Persia (present day Iran) Capital: Isfahanwelcomed outside influenceTrade and commerceDisputes: #8Control of MesopotamiaReligious:Safavids: ShiiteOttomans: Sunni(Safavid from Islam DVD)
45 Empire of Faith - Ottomans Siege of Vienna and Death of Suleiman 42:50 – endOr 48:50 - end