Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

UNIT 2 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH. POEM OF ENGLISH Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "UNIT 2 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH. POEM OF ENGLISH Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 2 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH

2 POEM OF ENGLISH Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse. I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy. Tear in eye, your dress will tear. So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.

3 (follows) Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind the latter, how it's written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and streak; Cloven, oven, how and low, Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

4 (follows) Finally, which rhymes with enough tough, through, plough, or dough, or cough? Hiccough has the sound of cup. My advice is to give up!

5 GENERAL ISSUES GENERAL ISSUES COMPLEX NATURE OF THE ENGLISH PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM COMPLEX NATURE OF THE ENGLISH PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ITALIAN SOUNDS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ITALIAN SOUNDS VARIETY OF ENGLISH ACCENTS VARIETY OF ENGLISH ACCENTS therefore therefore A KNOWLEDGE OF PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IS EXPECTED FROM UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND WILL PROVE TO BE BENEFICIAL TO THEIR PRONUNCIATION SKILLS A KNOWLEDGE OF PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IS EXPECTED FROM UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND WILL PROVE TO BE BENEFICIAL TO THEIR PRONUNCIATION SKILLS

6 ACCENTS OF ENGLISH: NATIVE, ‘NATIVESED’, FOREIGN Accent: the way in which a language is pronounced in a specific geographical area Accent: the way in which a language is pronounced in a specific geographical area  native: UK, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada  ‘nativised’: where English is a second language (e.g. India)  foreign: where English is a foreign language (e.g. Europe, China)

7 The British and the Americans are “divided by a common language” TWO STANDARDS OF PRONUNCIATION (Compare the BBC and CNN News): (Compare the BBC and CNN News): RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION, RP, OR BBC ENGLISH GENERAL AMERICAN

8 Phonetics and phonology Phonetics: studies the physical characteristics of sounds Phonology: describes the organization of the sound system of a language

9 The articulators

10 Graphemes and phonemes grapheme: a letter of the alphabet (a discrete mark in writing or print) grapheme: a letter of the alphabet (a discrete mark in writing or print) phoneme: a distinctive sound in a language capable of creating a distinction in meaning between two words /d/ dog /l/ log /f/ fog phoneme: a distinctive sound in a language capable of creating a distinction in meaning between two words /d/ dog /l/ log /f/ fog

11 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) a set of symbols used for representing the phonemes and sounds of all languages a set of symbols used for representing the phonemes and sounds of all languages the phonetic transcription of words is provided by bilingual and monolingual dictionaries the phonetic transcription of words is provided by bilingual and monolingual dictionaries phoneme symbols are enclosed within slant brackets /  / whereas the phonetic transcription of words is enclosed in square brackets [  ] phoneme symbols are enclosed within slant brackets /  / whereas the phonetic transcription of words is enclosed in square brackets [  ]

12 TWO USEFUL WEBSITES TWO USEFUL WEBSITES http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningengli sh/grammar/pron/sounds/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningengli sh/grammar/pron/sounds/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningengli sh/grammar/pron/sounds/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningengli sh/grammar/pron/sounds/ the website of the BBC World Service the website of the BBC World Service http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ The website of The International Phonetic Association (IPA) The website of The International Phonetic Association (IPA)

13 No one-to-one correspondence between graphemes and phonemes e.g. cut, nice, ocean e.g. cut, nice, ocean /k/ in ‘cut’ [  ] /k/ in ‘cut’ [  ] /s/ in ‘nice’ [  ] /s/ in ‘nice’ [  ] /  / in ‘ocean’ [  ] /  / in ‘ocean’ [  ] e.g. come, home e.g. come, home /  / in ‘come’ [  ] /  / in ‘come’ [  ] /  / in ‘home’ [  ] /  / in ‘home’ [  ]

14 Silent graphemes castle, Christmas, often castle, Christmas, often know, knock know, knock walk, talk, folk walk, talk, folk in write, wrong in write, wrong debt, bomb, doubt debt, bomb, doubt psychology, psalm psychology, psalm

15 Homophones and homographs ‘aloud’( ad alta voce) and ‘allowed’ (consentito) [  ] ‘aloud’( ad alta voce) and ‘allowed’ (consentito) [  ] homophones: words orthographically different but phonetically identical homophones: words orthographically different but phonetically identical - lead [  ] (condurre), lead [  ] (piombo) - tear [  ] (lacrima), tear [  ] (strappare) - lead [  ] (condurre), lead [  ] (piombo) - tear [  ] (lacrima), tear [  ] (strappare) homographs: words orthographically identical but phonetically different homographs: words orthographically identical but phonetically different

16 English phonology segmental: describes the phonemes of a language and the way they combine segmental: describes the phonemes of a language and the way they combine suprasegmental: describes the units larger than the phonemes (syllables, rhythm groups and intonation phrases) suprasegmental: describes the units larger than the phonemes (syllables, rhythm groups and intonation phrases)

17 Phonemes and minimal pairs phoneme: a distinctive sound in a language capable of creating a distinction in meaning between two words phoneme: a distinctive sound in a language capable of creating a distinction in meaning between two words /s/ /  / and /t/  sit [s i t]  set [set]  sat [s  t]  set [set]  sat [s  t] minimal pairs: a pair of words which differ only by one phoneme minimal pairs: a pair of words which differ only by one phoneme kit [k  t]  cat [k  t]  cot [k  t]  caught [k  t] pane [  pane]  cane [  cane]  rane [  rane]  vane[  vane]

18 PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES allophone: the different realisations of the same phoneme in different contexts e.g. /t/ - aspiration: top [  ] - affrication: train [    ] - Not fully audible: set [   ] - clear /l/: lip [  ] - dark [  ] (accompanied by back resonance) in syllable final position as in ‘hill’ [  ] or before another consonant as in ‘milk’ [  ]

19 THE GAP BETWEEN SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH THE GAP BETWEEN SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH THE ENGLISH ALPHABET IS MADE OF 26 LETTERS THE ENGLISH ALPHABET IS MADE OF 26 LETTERS THE ENGLISH PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM (in RP) IS MADE OF 43 PHONEMES THE ENGLISH PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM (in RP) IS MADE OF 43 PHONEMES

20 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET 26 LETTERS a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

21 THE ENGLISH SOUNDS: 43 PHONEMES THE ENGLISH SOUNDS: 43 PHONEMES Vowels:             Diphthongs:     , , ,  Consonants: p b  f v   t d         k g   w

22 THE ENGLISH SOUND SYSTEM: 43 PHONEMES THE ENGLISH SOUND SYSTEM: 43 PHONEMES Vowels:  (bit)  (meet)  (test)  (bad)  (are)  (but)  (sorry)  (walk)  (book)  (pool)  (girl)  (sorry)  (walk)  (book)  (pool)  (girl) (  =schwa) (  =schwa) Diphthongs:  (I)  (day)  (boy)  ( house)  u (go),  (dear),  (chair),  (poor) Consonants: p b  f v  (both)  (this) t d    (show)  (pleasure)  (chicken)  (jam)   k g  (ring) 

23 VOWELS AND CONSONANTS WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VOWELS VOWELS and and CONSONANTS ? CONSONANTS ?

24 VOWELS, DYPHTHONGS, CONSONANTS VOWELS are oral, voiced and egressive sounds produced without any obstruction to the airstream coming from the lungs VOWELS are oral, voiced and egressive sounds produced without any obstruction to the airstream coming from the lungs DIPHTHONGS are oral, voiced, egressive glides from one vowel to another vowel uttered with the same emission of sound DIPHTHONGS are oral, voiced, egressive glides from one vowel to another vowel uttered with the same emission of sound CONSONANTS are sounds produced with an egressive flow of air coming out of the mouth or the nose accompanied by obstruction or friction in the articulators

25 Vowels /            [  ]= schwa/

26 Short vowels  rich, English, live, busy, women, build  test, bread, friend, says, bury, guest  bad, have, January, thank, marry  spot, what, orange, holiday, sorry, wash  must, done, love, sun, son, month, London, country, blood, enough  bush, butcher, pudding, woman, wolf, book, could

27 Long vowels  after, father, are, party  church, girl, early, work, world, journal  meet, dream, please, ski, people  wall, caught, daughter, bought, law, walk  pool, who, move, tomb, through, fruit

28 THE ENGLISH VOWELS THE ENGLISH VOWELS  The distance between the tongue and the palate: open, half- open, close  The part of the tongue that is raised: front, central, back  The length: long ( tense), short ( lax)  The position of the lips: rounded, neutral, spread

29 Minimal pairs with vowels  fitslipsin  feetsleepseen  pansadsat  pensaidset  potspotcot  portsportcaught

30 Diphthongs a diphthong is an oral, voiced, egressive glide from one vowel to another vowel uttered with the same emission of sound a diphthong is an oral, voiced, egressive glide from one vowel to another vowel uttered with the same emission of sound the first element is normally more audible than the second the first element is normally more audible than the second closing diphthongs:      closing diphthongs:      centring diphthongs: , ,  centring diphthongs: , ,  triphthongs: , , , ,  triphthongs: , , , , 

31 Closing diphthongs  late, baby, rain, reign, they, great  life, I, night, die, eye, buy  boy, joy, coin, choice, moist  house, shout, about, down  go, so, don’t, home, road, soul

32 Centring diphthongs  dear, idea, beard, beer, here  share, Mary, area, wear, chair, their, there, where there, where  poor, insure, plural, jury

33 Minimal pairs with diphthongs  ballsawcall born  bowlsocoalbone  werefur bur bird  wherefairbearbared

34 Non-phonemic symbols schwa [  ] central, short sound schwa [  ] central, short sound it occurs only in unstressed syllables It is a word of Hebrew origin, referring to a weak or missing vowel sound It is a word of Hebrew origin, referring to a weak or missing vowel sound [i] and [u] represent the long phonemes /  / and /  / in unstressed position e.g. happy [  ], react [  ] you [  ], situation [  ]

35 Group these words according to the pronunciation of the grapheme : car, all, radio, lake, map, again, final, start, today, hand, small [  ]…………………………………………… [  ] ………………………………………….. [  ] ………………………………………….. [  ] …………………………………………… [  ] ……………………………………………

36 answers [  ] map, hand [  ] car, start [  ] radio, lake, today [  ] all, small [  ] again, final

37 CONSONANTS ORAL ( the air through the mouth) most consonants are oral but three are but three are NASAL ( the air through the nose) i.e /m/ mouse /n/ no /  / sing

38 Consonants can be classified according to PLACE OF ARTICULATION e.g. Bilabial /p/ pen, /b/, bull, /m/ man /p/ pen, /b/, bull, /m/ man MANNER OF ARTICULATION e.g. Plosives /t/ top, /k/ cat, /d/ do, /g/ get VOICING consonants can be voiced or voiceless depending on the vibration or otherwise of the vocal cords e.g. /s/ versus /z/

39 UNUSUAL IPA SYMBOLS (FOR ITALIANS) both, father /  / /  / dental fricatives shop, pleasure, /  / /  / palato-alveolar fricatives /  / /  / palato-alveolar fricatives China, John /  / /  / palato-alveolar affricates Sing, playing /  / velar nasal /  / velar nasal hall, hell /h/ glottal fricative /h/ glottal fricative

40 Manner of articulation plosives: p b t d k g plosives: p b t d k g fricatives: f v        fricatives: f v        nasals:   nasals:   affricates:   affricates:   liquids:  liquids:  semi-vowels (or approximants):   semi-vowels (or approximants):  

41 Place of articulation bilabial: p b   bilabial: p b   labiodental: f v labiodental: f v dental:   dental:   alveolar: t d   alveolar: t d   palato-alveolar:      palato-alveolar:      palatal:  palatal:  velar: k g  velar: k g  glottal:  glottal: 

42 Consonant minimal pairs  tintaughttrill  tintaughttrill  thinthoughtthrill  thinthoughtthrill  sipnieceice  sipnieceice  zipkneeseyes  zipkneeseyes sinban ran sinban ran  singbangrang  singbangrang

43 Voicing vibration of the vocal cords inside the larynx vibration of the vocal cords inside the larynx the voiceless consonant phonemes are: the voiceless consonant phonemes are: / , , , , , , ,  / / , , , , , , ,  / the voiced consonant phonemes are: the voiced consonant phonemes are:  / , , , , , , , ,, ,, , ,  /  inflections: [  ] after a voiceless consonant, [  ] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [  ] after a fricative or affricate sound e.g. books [  ], claps [  ] e.g. books [  ], claps [  ] trees [  ], pens [penz], trees [  ], pens [penz], buses /  /, washes /  / buses /  /, washes /  /

44 Syllabic consonants a syllabic consonant occurs as the nucleus of syllables a syllabic consonant occurs as the nucleus of syllables e.g. / / couple [  ], middle [  ], able [  ], / / listen [  ], rotten [  ], sudden [  ]

45 The semivowels /w/ and /j/ They are phonetically similar to vowels, but phonologically they behave like consonants because they precede vowels in syllables and require the indefinite article “a” rather than “an”. e.g. A young man /j/ a wet carpet /w/ a wet carpet /w/

46 /r/: rhoticity and r-linking in RP only pre-vocalic /r/ is pronounced, whereas post-vocalic /r/ is silent: in RP only pre-vocalic /r/ is pronounced, whereas post-vocalic /r/ is silent: red [  ], arrive [  ] red [  ], arrive [  ] car [  ], hard [  ] car [  ], hard [  ] r-linking: in RP if a word ending with silent /r/ is followed by another word beginning with a vowel, the /r/ is pronounced to link the two words r-linking: in RP if a word ending with silent /r/ is followed by another word beginning with a vowel, the /r/ is pronounced to link the two words e.g. the car is parked in the street e.g. the car is parked in the street [    ] [    ] in American English the [r] is always pronounced in American English the [r] is always pronounced

47 English / Italian phonemes in contrast long/short vowels opposition long/short vowels opposition leave [  ] vs live [  ]  “I want to leave” and “I want to live” laxness: the pronunciation of the six short vowel laxness: the pronunciation of the six short vowel with little tension in the articulators / , , , , ,  / with little tension in the articulators / , , , , ,  / aspiration: in plosives  pain [  ] aspiration: in plosives  pain [  ] tea [  ], [h]  hotel [  ]

48 English / Italian phonemes in contrast  non-voicing of syllable initial [  ] + consonant e.g. small [  ], slim [  ], snail [  ], swim [  ]  [* , * , * , *  ] e.g. small [  ], slim [  ], snail [  ], swim [  ]  [* , * , * , *  ]  inflections: [  ] after a voiceless consonant, [  ] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [  ] after a fricative or affricate sound e.g. books [  ], claps [  ] e.g. books [  ], claps [  ] trees [  ], pens [penz], needs /  / trees [  ], pens [penz], needs /  / buses /  /, washes /  / buses /  /, washes /  /  Failing to aspirate /h/ at the beginning of stressed syllables e.g. art should non be confused with heart e.g. art should non be confused with heart

49 English / Italian phonemes in contrast  dental fricatives, which are very frequent in English, e.g definite articles and demonstratieves / ,  / thriller  [*  ]  non-voicing of syllable initial [  ] + consonant e.g. small [  ], slim [  ], snail [  ], swim [  ]  [* , * , * , *  ] e.g. small [  ], slim [  ], snail [  ], swim [  ]  [* , * , * , *  ]  inflections: [  ] after a voiceless consonant, [  ] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [  ] after a fricative or affricate sound e.g. books [  ], claps [  ] e.g. books [  ], claps [  ] trees [  ], pens [penz], needs /  / trees [  ], pens [penz], needs /  / buses /  /, washes /  / buses /  /, washes /  /

50 Pronunciation of the regular past tense.-ed e.g. liked  ] e.g. liked  ] lived [  ] lived [  ] needed [  ] needed [  ] wanted [  ] wanted [  ]  regular past tense and past participle inflections  [  ]after a voiceless consonant, [  ] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [  ] after [t] and [d]

51 Sentences in phonetic transcription [   ] I ’ d like to take up French next year [   ] We liked the atmosphere in that club [   ] Our flight was very late [   ] It ’ s very kind of you to help

52 The syllable a phonological unit made up of one or more phonemes. A minimum syllable is made of a vowel (V). The most common syllable in English is made by Consonant+Vowel+Consonant a phonological unit made up of one or more phonemes. A minimum syllable is made of a vowel (V). The most common syllable in English is made by Consonant+Vowel+Consonant V  are [  ] CV  tea [  ] VC  arm [  ] CVC  did [  ]

53 SYLLABLES IN ENGLISH AND IN ITALIAN closed syllables end in a consonant and are the most common in English (60%) closed syllables end in a consonant and are the most common in English (60%) e.g. stop, get, bed e.g. stop, get, bed open syllables end in a vowel and they are the most common in Italian (70%) open syllables end in a vowel and they are the most common in Italian (70%) e.g. Cane, camera, figlio e.g. Cane, camera, figlio Italian speakers tend to add a vowel sound at the end of English closed syllables e.g. book [b ʊ kə ] rather than [b ʊ k]

54 Stress The prominence given to a syllable The prominence given to a syllable in phonetic transcription stress is indicated by a vertical line (stress mark) preceding the stressed syllable. Polysyllabic words may have a primary and a secondary stress in phonetic transcription stress is indicated by a vertical line (stress mark) preceding the stressed syllable. Polysyllabic words may have a primary and a secondary stress happiness [  ] happiness [  ] newspaper [  ] newspaper [  ]

55 Stress patterns – 2 syllables TYPE   (strong + weak) TYPE   (strong + weak) e.g. money [  ] river [  ] river [  ] breakfast [  ] TYPE   (strong + strong) TYPE   (strong + strong) e.g. background [  ] phoneme [  ], phoneme [  ], pillow [  ]

56 Stress patterns – 2 syllables TYPE   (weak + strong) TYPE   (weak + strong) e.g. result [  ] report [  ] believe [  ] TYPE   (strong + strong) TYPE   (strong + strong) e.g. although [  ] myself [  ] myself [  ] tycoon [  ] tycoon [  ]

57 Stress shift predicative predicative my son is fourteen [  ] attributive attributive I lost fourteen pounds [  ] digest [  ] to digest [  ] digest [  ] to digest [  ] export [  ] to export [  ], export [  ] to export [  ], desert [  ] to desert [  ]. desert [  ] to desert [  ].

58 Stress patterns – 3 syllables TYPE    (strong + weak + weak) TYPE    (strong + weak + weak) e.g. family [  ], manager [  ] TYPE    (strong+weak+strong) TYPE    (strong+weak+strong) e.g. telephone [  ], summertime [  ] the suffix -ate is always strong in verbs but weak in adjectives and nouns the suffix -ate is always strong in verbs but weak in adjectives and nouns e.g. operate v. [  ] hesitate v. [  ] fortunate adj. [  ] chocolate n. [  ] fortunate adj. [  ] chocolate n. [  ]

59 Stress pattern – 3 syllables TYPE    (strong + strong + weak) TYPE    (strong + strong + weak) e.g. newspaper [  ] grandmother [  ] TYPE    (weak + strong + weak) TYPE    (weak + strong + weak) e.g. remember [  ] agreement [  ] TYPE    (strong + strong + weak) TYPE    (strong + strong + weak) e.g. sensation [  ] unhealthy [  ] TYPE    (strong + weak + strong) TYPE    (strong + weak + strong) e.g. afternoon [  ] understand [  ]

60 Stress and suffixes Germanic rule: stress on the first syllable Germanic rule: stress on the first syllable answer [  ] vs Romance rule: stress on the penultimate or final syllable reply [  ] suffixes carrying stress suffixes carrying stress -eeaddressee [  ]

61 Stress and suffixes suffixes that are not stressed (stress is left on the root word): suffixes that are not stressed (stress is left on the root word): -fulwonderful [  ] -lessmeaningless [  ] -mentdevelopment [  ] suffixes that assign stress to the penultimate syllable: suffixes that assign stress to the penultimate syllable: -iceconomic [  ] -icslinguistics [  ]

62 Underline the word which does not have the same stress pattern in the lists below.     troubleBritaincigarjinglepoker     aloneperhapsrespectTurkeydeny     colleagueoutlinesomeonecontrolMonday      upstairsdivertgoodbyethirteenfreedom         presidentdictationArabicdiplomatvisitor         imitatephotographglorifywonderfulobedient         newsreaderimportantgrandfatherhomecomingheadhunter         vacationsincerelysuspicionprofessorlibrary         vibrationlefthandeddangerousunlikelyorganic

63 ANSWERS.      trouble Britain cigar jingle poker      alone perhaps respect Turkey deny      colleague outline someone control Monday      upstairs divert goodbye thirteen freedom          president dictation Arabic diplomat visitor          imitate photograph glorify wonderful obedient          newsreader important grandfather homecoming headhunter          vacation sincerely suspicion professor library          vibration lefthanded dangerous unlikely organic


Download ppt "UNIT 2 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH. POEM OF ENGLISH Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google