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THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH

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1 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH
UNIT 2 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH

2 POEM OF ENGLISH Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse. I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy. Tear in eye, your dress will tear. So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.

3 (follows) Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind the latter, how it's written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and streak; Cloven, oven, how and low, Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

4 (follows) Finally, which rhymes with enough tough, through, plough, or dough, or cough? Hiccough has the sound of cup. My advice is to give up!

5 GENERAL ISSUES COMPLEX NATURE OF THE ENGLISH PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ITALIAN SOUNDS VARIETY OF ENGLISH ACCENTS therefore A KNOWLEDGE OF PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IS EXPECTED FROM UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND WILL PROVE TO BE BENEFICIAL TO THEIR PRONUNCIATION SKILLS

6 ACCENTS OF ENGLISH: NATIVE, ‘NATIVESED’, FOREIGN
Accent: the way in which a language is pronounced in a specific geographical area native: UK , Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada ‘nativised’: where English is a second language (e.g. India) foreign: where English is a foreign language (e.g. Europe, China)

7 The British and the Americans are “divided by a common language”
TWO STANDARDS OF PRONUNCIATION (Compare the BBC and CNN News): RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION, RP, OR BBC ENGLISH GENERAL AMERICAN

8 Phonetics and phonology
Phonetics: studies the physical characteristics of sounds Phonology: describes the organization of the sound system of a language

9 The articulators

10 Graphemes and phonemes
grapheme: a letter of the alphabet (a discrete mark in writing or print) <t> phoneme: a distinctive sound in a language capable of creating a distinction in meaning between two words /d/ dog /l/ log /f/ fog

11 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
a set of symbols used for representing the phonemes and sounds of all languages the phonetic transcription of words is provided by bilingual and monolingual dictionaries phoneme symbols are enclosed within slant brackets // whereas the phonetic transcription of words is enclosed in square brackets []

12 TWO USEFUL WEBSITES the website of the BBC World Service The website of The International Phonetic Association (IPA)

13 No one-to-one correspondence between graphemes and phonemes
<c> e.g. cut, nice, ocean /k/ in ‘cut’ [] /s/ in ‘nice’ [] // in ‘ocean’ [] <o> e.g. come , home // in ‘come’ [] // in ‘home’ []

14 Silent graphemes castle, Christmas, often <t> know, knock
walk, talk, folk <l> in write, wrong <w> debt, bomb, doubt <b> psychology , psalm <p>

15 Homophones and homographs
‘aloud’( ad alta voce) and ‘allowed’ (consentito) [] homophones: words orthographically different but phonetically identical - lead [] (condurre), lead [] (piombo) - tear [] (lacrima), tear [] (strappare) homographs: words orthographically identical but phonetically different

16 English phonology segmental: describes the phonemes of a language and the way they combine suprasegmental: describes the units larger than the phonemes (syllables, rhythm groups and intonation phrases)

17 Phonemes and minimal pairs
phoneme: a distinctive sound in a language capable of creating a distinction in meaning between two words /s/ // and /t/  sit [sit]  set [set]  sat [st] minimal pairs: a pair of words which differ only by one phoneme kit [kt]  cat [kt]  cot [kt]  caught [kt] pane [pane]  cane [cane]  rane [rane]  vane[vane]

18 PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES
allophone: the different realisations of the same phoneme in different contexts e.g. /t/ - aspiration: top [] - affrication: train [] - Not fully audible: set [ ] - clear /l/: lip [] dark [] (accompanied by back resonance) in syllable final position as in ‘hill’ [] or before another consonant as in ‘milk’ []

19 THE GAP BETWEEN SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH
THE ENGLISH ALPHABET IS MADE OF 26 LETTERS THE ENGLISH PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM (in RP) IS MADE OF 43 PHONEMES

20 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET 26 LETTERS
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

21 THE ENGLISH SOUNDS: 43 PHONEMES
Vowels:             Diphthongs:     , , ,  Consonants: p b  f v   t d           k g   w

22 THE ENGLISH SOUND SYSTEM: 43 PHONEMES
Vowels:  (bit)  (meet)  (test)  (bad)  (are)  (but)  (sorry)  (walk)  (book)  (pool)  (girl) (=schwa) Diphthongs:  (I)  (day)  (boy)  ( house) u (go),  (dear) ,  (chair),  (poor) Consonants: p b  f v  (both)  (this) t d      (show)  (pleasure)  (chicken)  (jam)   k g  (ring) 

23 VOWELS AND CONSONANTS WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VOWELS and

24 VOWELS, DYPHTHONGS, CONSONANTS
VOWELS are oral, voiced and egressive sounds produced without any obstruction to the airstream coming from the lungs DIPHTHONGS are oral, voiced, egressive glides from one vowel to another vowel uttered with the same emission of sound CONSONANTS are sounds produced with an egressive flow of air coming out of the mouth or the nose accompanied by obstruction or friction in the articulators

25 Vowels /           []= schwa/

26 Short vowels  rich, English, live, busy, women, build
 test, bread, friend, says, bury, guest  bad, have, January, thank, marry  spot, what, orange, holiday, sorry, wash  must, done, love, sun, son, month, London, country, blood, enough  bush, butcher, pudding, woman, wolf, book, could

27 Long vowels  after, father, are, party
 church, girl, early, work, world, journal  meet, dream, please, ski, people  wall, caught, daughter, bought, law, walk  pool, who, move, tomb, through, fruit

28 THE ENGLISH VOWELS The distance between the tongue and the palate: open, half-open, close The part of the tongue that is raised: front, central, back The length: long ( tense), short ( lax) The position of the lips: rounded, neutral, spread

29 Minimal pairs with vowels
 fit slip sin  feet sleep seen  pan sad sat  pen said set  pot spot cot  port sport caught

30 Diphthongs a diphthong is an oral, voiced, egressive glide from one vowel to another vowel uttered with the same emission of sound the first element is normally more audible than the second closing diphthongs:      centring diphthongs: , ,  triphthongs: , , , , 

31 Closing diphthongs  late, baby, rain, reign, they, great
 life, I, night, die, eye, buy  boy, joy, coin, choice, moist  house, shout, about, down  go, so, don’t, home, road, soul

32 Centring diphthongs  dear, idea, beard, beer, here
 share, Mary, area, wear, chair, their, there, where  poor, insure, plural, jury

33 Minimal pairs with diphthongs
 ball saw call born  bowl so coal bone  were fur bur bird  where fair bear bared

34 Non-phonemic symbols schwa [] central, short sound
it occurs only in unstressed syllables It is a word of Hebrew origin, referring to a weak or missing vowel sound [i] and [u] represent the long phonemes // and // in unstressed position e.g. happy [], react [] you [], situation []

35 Group these words according to the pronunciation of the grapheme <a>: car, all, radio, lake, map, again, final, start, today, hand, small []…………………………………………… [] ………………………………………….. [] ………………………………………….. [] …………………………………………… [] ……………………………………………

36 answers [] map, hand [] car, start [] radio, lake, today
[] all, small [] again, final

37 CONSONANTS ORAL ( the air through the mouth) most consonants are oral but three are NASAL ( the air through the nose) i.e /m/ mouse /n/ no / / sing

38 Consonants can be classified according to
PLACE OF ARTICULATION e.g. Bilabial /p/ pen, /b/, bull, /m/ man MANNER OF ARTICULATION e.g. Plosives /t/ top, /k/ cat, /d/ do, /g/ get VOICING consonants can be voiced or voiceless depending on the vibration or otherwise of the vocal cords e.g. /s/ versus /z/

39 UNUSUAL IPA SYMBOLS (FOR ITALIANS)
both , father // // dental fricatives shop, pleasure, // // palato-alveolar fricatives China, John // // palato-alveolar affricates Sing, playing /  / velar nasal hall, hell /h/ glottal fricative

40 Manner of articulation
plosives: p b t d k g fricatives: f v        nasals:    affricates:   liquids:   semi-vowels (or approximants):  

41 Place of articulation bilabial: p b   labiodental: f v dental:  
alveolar: t d     palato-alveolar:      palatal:  velar: k g  glottal: 

42 Consonant minimal pairs
 tin taught trill  thin thought thrill  sip niece ice  zip knees eyes  sin ban ran  sing bang rang

43 Voicing vibration of the vocal cords inside the larynx
the voiceless consonant phonemes are: /, , , , , , , / the voiced consonant phonemes are: /, , , , , , , , , , , , , / inflections: [] after a voiceless consonant, [] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [] after a fricative or affricate sound e.g. books [], claps [] trees [], pens [penz], buses //, washes //

44 Syllabic consonants a syllabic consonant occurs as the nucleus of syllables e.g. // couple [], middle [], able [], // listen [], rotten [], sudden []

45 The semivowels /w/ and /j/
They are phonetically similar to vowels, but phonologically they behave like consonants because they precede vowels in syllables and require the indefinite article “a” rather than “an”. e.g. A young man /j/ a wet carpet /w/

46 /r/: rhoticity and r-linking
in RP only pre-vocalic /r/ is pronounced, whereas post-vocalic /r/ is silent: red [], arrive [] car [], hard [] r-linking: in RP if a word ending with silent /r/ is followed by another word beginning with a vowel, the /r/ is pronounced to link the two words   e.g. the car is parked in the street [  ] in American English the [r] is always pronounced

47 English / Italian phonemes in contrast
long/short vowels opposition leave [] vs live []  “I want to leave” and “I want to live” laxness: the pronunciation of the six short vowel with little tension in the articulators /, , , , , / aspiration: in plosives  pain [] tea [], [h]  hotel []

48 English / Italian phonemes in contrast
non-voicing of syllable initial [] + consonant e.g. small [], slim [], snail [], swim []  [*, *, *, *] inflections: [] after a voiceless consonant, [] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [] after a fricative or affricate sound e.g. books [], claps [] trees [], pens [penz], needs // buses //, washes // Failing to aspirate /h/ at the beginning of stressed syllables e.g. art should non be confused with heart

49 English / Italian phonemes in contrast
dental fricatives, which are very frequent in English, e.g definite articles and demonstratieves /, / thriller  [*] non-voicing of syllable initial [] + consonant e.g. small [], slim [], snail [], swim []  [*, *, *, *] inflections: [] after a voiceless consonant, [] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [] after a fricative or affricate sound e.g. books [], claps [] trees [], pens [penz], needs // buses //, washes //

50 Pronunciation of the regular past tense.-ed
e.g. liked ] lived [] needed [] wanted [] regular past tense and past participle inflections <-ed>  []after a voiceless consonant, [] after a vowel or a voiced consonant, [] after [t] and [d]

51 Sentences in phonetic transcription
[] I’d like to take up French next year [] We liked the atmosphere in that club [] Our flight was very late [] It’s very kind of you to help

52 The syllable a phonological unit made up of one or more phonemes. A minimum syllable is made of a vowel (V). The most common syllable in English is made by Consonant+Vowel+Consonant V are [] CV  tea [] VC  arm [] CVC  did []

53 SYLLABLES IN ENGLISH AND IN ITALIAN
closed syllables end in a consonant and are the most common in English (60%) e.g. stop, get, bed open syllables end in a vowel and they are the most common in Italian (70%) e.g. Cane, camera, figlio Italian speakers tend to add a vowel sound at the end of English closed syllables e.g. book [bʊkə] rather than [bʊk]

54 Stress The prominence given to a syllable
in phonetic transcription stress is indicated by a vertical line (stress mark) preceding the stressed syllable. Polysyllabic words may have a primary and a secondary stress happiness [] newspaper []

55 Stress patterns – 2 syllables
TYPE   (strong + weak) e.g. money [] river [] breakfast [] TYPE   (strong + strong) e.g. background [] phoneme [], pillow []

56 Stress patterns – 2 syllables
TYPE   (weak + strong) e.g. result [] report [] believe [] TYPE   (strong + strong) e.g. although [] myself [] tycoon []

57 Stress shift predicative my son is fourteen []
attributive I lost fourteen pounds [] digest [] to digest [] export [] to export [], desert [] to desert [].

58 Stress patterns – 3 syllables
TYPE    (strong + weak + weak) e.g. family [], manager [] TYPE    (strong+weak+strong) e.g. telephone [], summertime [] the suffix -ate is always strong in verbs but weak in adjectives and nouns e.g. operate v. [] hesitate v. [] fortunate adj. [] chocolate n. []

59 Stress pattern – 3 syllables
TYPE    (strong + strong + weak) e.g. newspaper [] grandmother [] TYPE    (weak + strong + weak) e.g. remember [] agreement [] TYPE    (strong + strong + weak) e.g. sensation [] unhealthy [] TYPE    (strong + weak + strong) e.g. afternoon [] understand []

60 Stress and suffixes Germanic rule: stress on the first syllable
answer [] vs Romance rule: stress on the penultimate or final syllable reply [] suffixes carrying stress -ee addressee []

61 Stress and suffixes suffixes that are not stressed (stress is left on the root word): -ful wonderful [] -less meaningless [] -ment development [] suffixes that assign stress to the penultimate syllable: -ic economic [] -ics linguistics []

62 Underline the word which does not have the same stress pattern in the lists below.
  trouble Britain cigar jingle poker   alone perhaps respect Turkey deny   colleague outline someone control Monday   upstairs divert goodbye thirteen freedom    president dictation Arabic diplomat visitor    imitate photograph glorify wonderful obedient    newsreader important grandfather homecoming headhunter    vacation sincerely suspicion professor library    vibration lefthanded dangerous unlikely organic

63   trouble Britain cigar jingle poker   alone perhaps respect
ANSWERS.   trouble Britain cigar jingle poker   alone perhaps respect Turkey deny   colleague outline someone control Monday   upstairs divert goodbye thirteen freedom    president dictation Arabic diplomat visitor    imitate photograph glorify wonderful obedient    newsreader important grandfather homecoming headhunter    vacation sincerely suspicion professor library    vibration lefthanded dangerous unlikely organic


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