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Oh Muse!  Mnemosyne  Stories, poems and songs  Apollo  Art, science, literature, history, astronomy, drama  Orpheus  Museum, amusement, music.

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Presentation on theme: "Oh Muse!  Mnemosyne  Stories, poems and songs  Apollo  Art, science, literature, history, astronomy, drama  Orpheus  Museum, amusement, music."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oh Muse!  Mnemosyne  Stories, poems and songs  Apollo  Art, science, literature, history, astronomy, drama  Orpheus  Museum, amusement, music

2 Chapter V, Five, 5 MASS LEISURE  One of the most important aspects of leisure is mass leisure  Throughout history, people have sought out mass leisure experiences  Often the group dynamic enhances a leisure experience  Mass leisure can be one of the hardest components of society to control

3 Industrial Revolution (or near about)  Leisure (time) increases  Leisure becomes compartmentalized  Government programs and social movements increase  Land set aside specifically for recreation  Televisions not yet invented

4 Discretionary Time  Time left over after the practical necessities of life have been attended to  The US, Canada and Western Europe have sought to increase discretionary time for leisure  Technology has potentially reduced the amount of time necessary for household chores  Society was headed to a 30-hour workweek

5 30-Hour Workweek!! (Yeah Right)  America has run out of time (a pet subject of periodicals)  Leisure is to the 90s what money was to the 80s  Leisure time has shrunk 37%  Americans feel “rushed”  Sundays are for shopping

6 30-Hour Workweek!! (Yeah Right)  Leisure value has increased, but so has the competitive nature of US society  Technology has actually hurt our ability to increase our leisure

7 Robinson and Godbey Somewhat contradicts other studies:  Americans have more free time than ever (but is free time leisure?)  Time devoted to work has declined, but Americans believe it has increased (think Neulinger)  Unmarried people have more free time than married people  Senior free time has increased the most  Every extra hour of free time gained has resulted in an extra hour of television watched  People cutting back on sleep to gain time  Leisure is valued as highly as money

8 The Evils of Television  Television viewing has steadily increased in US society  Television takes up 38% of our free time  Television is rated low in pleasure  Television has a direct effect on people not doing activities they consider enjoyable (think Neulinger)  Children and television are a bad combination

9 The Good of Television ??

10 Other Trends  Consume, consume, consume  “Time Famine”  People need to work more to support their families  Leisure desire is strong, but the desire for material goods is stronger (keeping up with the Jones)  Time famine is greater for women

11 Technology Double-Sided Sword  Washing machines, dryers, vacuum cleaners, cars, etc…all have made life easier  Unfortunately, taking care of these devices and buying them takes up valuable time

12 Technology Double-Sided Sword  Computers, fax machines, palm pilots, lap tops, cell phones, etc...make working and communicating easier  Unfortunately, they also mean that vacations are now just another place to work  Learning new technology and keeping up with the changes absorbs many free time hours  Technology can frustrate and even intimidate some people

13 The Middle Classes (The Destroyers of Leisure)  Aristotle noted that without leisure there would be no education and learning  Greeks believed in leisure as a “state of being”  Leisure and education were meant for the elite who could then decide for the masses what they needed  Museums were linked to the early schools, and were meant for the elite as a place “to muse”  Tourism was associated with religious pilgrims and the elite

14 Mass Culture –vs- High Culture  The mass of men dislikes and has always disliked learning and art…it wishes to be distracted from life rather than to have it revealed; to be comforted by traditional truths rather than to be upset by new ones. --Van den Haag

15 As Leisure Moves to the Middle Classes…  As leisure moves to the middle classes, it becomes controlled by time (these people do work and leisure *gasp*)  Leisure as a symbol of social class takes on new meaning (the middle classes are trying to show they are upper class)  But…some research does indicate that people of all classes enjoy all types of recreation (even if they don’t have the resources to get it)

16 Mass Leisure/ Leisure for the Masses  Twentieth Century US, Canada and Western Europe saw mass leisure grow to epic proportions  Economic, social, value and political systems have given more people the ability to have leisure  Outdoor recreation, museums, botanical gardens, parks, libraries, mass media, pleasure travel

17 Mass Leisure/ Leisure for the Masses  Value systems now include the environment and personal health  Discretionary income increased significantly after WWII  Commercial recreation and leisure products explode in the 1970s  Popular culture has become legitimized, and once lofty agencies now seek middle class patrons  But still, most standards of the leisure industry are set by the elite

18 Mass Leisure/ Leisure for the Masses  Value systems now include the environment and personal health  Discretionary income increased significantly after WWII  Commercial recreation and leisure products explode in the 1970s  Popular culture has become legitimized, and once lofty agencies now seek middle class patrons  But still, most standards of the leisure industry are set by the elite

19 Mass Leisure/ Leisure for the Masses  Improved highways  Increased outdoor recreation spending (USFS’s increased interest in recreation rather than logging)  Availability of credit cards (obvious middle class effect)  Contraception

20 Mass Media  Increases in the number of television stations  Television gives us an eye to the world- provides a method for idea exchange  Television took leisure from outside to the home  Allows marketing to influence how we dress and where we go for leisure  Brings the arts, sports and travel to the home  It has reshaped leisure timetables with “prime time” and speciality programming that now competes with family, religious or personal time


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